Kidney removal: indications, postoperative period, rehabilitation, nutrition, consequences
There are a number of diseases in which kidney removal is the only option for saving a patient's life. This is an extreme measure, but if you can not do without it, then you need to get maximum information about what will happen. Moreover, it is desirable not only to understand how the operative intervention will be performed, but also to find out everything about the rehabilitation period after it.
There are no unimportant organs in the human body. Everyone does his job, influencing the state of a person as a whole. The kidneys perform several functions that are equally important:
- purification of blood from nitrogenous metabolites and other toxins;
- maintenance of the required level of electrolytes;
- fluid balance in body tissues;
- maintenance and regulation of blood pressure;
- isolation from cellular tissues of biologically active components, such as renin and erythropoietin.
The secretion of renin and erythropoietin is necessary for a person to maintain blood pressure and direct hematopoiesis.
Indications for the removal of the body
Removal of the kidney has a medical name - nephrectomy. Before appointing an operation, doctors try to keep the organ by all available means. The fact is that if the kidney is able to function at least 20%, then it is able to cope with the amount of work. But with some pathologies surgery can not be avoided. If the removal of the kidney is not performed in time, the consequences will be deplorable.
Nephrectomy is prescribed for organ trauma, malignant tumors, congenital anomalies, polycystosis and hydronephrosis. In case of detection of malignant education, it is impossible to delay with the decision making. Cancer is characterized by a rapid spread of metastases in healthy tissues.
Removal of the kidney is not prescribed without a comprehensive examination of the patient. To assess the functioning of the second organ, X-rays with contrast, MRI and other studies are prescribed. In case of emergency, the functionality is checked during the operation by administering a special dye, which must be excreted in the urine.
The operation is carried out in a hospital. The patient is in the hospital for 1 to 3 weeks. This depends on the complexity of the condition and the type of operation. Nephrectomy can be performed in an open manner or laparoscopically.
Surgeons prefer the laparoscopic method of nephrectomy. Patients are easier to tolerate such a removal of the kidney. Feedback on conducting laparoscopy is most favorable:
- on the body does not leave a large and ugly scar;
- operation is more secure;
- is less likely to develop complications;
- is easier to undergo rehabilitation;
- can avoid disability.
The fact is that manipulation is performed through small incisions in the lumbar region. They enter a laparoscope, and the control of execution occurs on a special monitor.
Possible complications of
Removal of the kidney can be accompanied by nonspecific complications, which depend on concomitant diseases and prolonged immobility. It can be congestive pneumonia or pulmonary embolism. In some cases, thrombophlebitis, myocardial infarction or stroke develop. Such complications in medical practice occur infrequently, as doctors take measures to prevent them.
The patient should understand that the removal of the kidney is a consequence of a neglected disease that could seriously damage the health. Operative intervention in this case is inevitable. But the postoperative complications can be avoided. Here a lot depends on the preoperative preparation and the desire of the person to return to active life more quickly. It is necessary to follow exactly all the medical prescriptions and recommendations.
Postoperative period. Physical activity
If the kidney is removed, the postoperative period requires complete rest. The first day the patient lies on his back, sharp movements and turns on his side are contraindicated, since the seams from the renal pedicle can slip. By the end of the first day or the morning of the next day, the medical staff helps cautiously turn over on their sides. Sit down in bed allowed for 2-3 days, if there were no complications. Get out of bed you can on the fourth day.
It is recommended to the patient to carry out respiratory gymnastics, move smoothly with arms and legs. You can not stay long in a state of immobility, but too much zeal for yourself is also harmful. If the recommendations are not respected, a hernia or adhesions may appear.
The most important condition - the use of clean water
In connection with the malnutrition and use of medicines, the formation of toxins takes place in the human body. They are excreted with feces and urine, but not always the kidneys are capable of efficiently processing them. Even greater load is available in the case of removal of the paired organ, so it is very important to facilitate the work of the remaining kidney.
First of all, the patient should be taught to drink only purified water that has been filtered. It is also recommended to use melt water. In a daily diet, you must include at least 30 ml of clean water per 1 kg of the patient's weight or 7 ml of melt water, respectively.
People suffering from obesity should increase the dose of water consumption from this calculation:
- purified water - not less than 40 ml per 1 kg of weight;
- melt water - from 10 ml per 1 kg of weight.
This norm of water is mandatory for daily use, plus the patient should receive additional liquid that is contained in vegetables, fruits, soups, etc.
The water intake in sufficient quantity will provide a soft stool, while urine will become less concentrated.
The first meal is allowed almost a day after surgery, but water is given earlier. Some patients complain of decreased intestinal motility and increased gas production.
After the patient was removed kidney, the food should change dramatically. The next two years will have to follow a diet: completely eliminate from the diet salty, pickled, smoked and spicy foods, reduce the consumption of protein and sweets, refrain from the abuse of coffee and tea.
The daily menu should include fruits and vegetables. The pumpkin and watermelon are necessarily introduced into the diet. Meat or meat dishes should be steamed or boiled, as fried in this period is harmful. Occasionally, you can use sour-milk products or yoghurts, but they should be fresh and have a short shelf life. The amount of consumed preservatives should be reduced to a minimum.
If the patient has successfully performed kidney removal, rehabilitation may take up to a year and a half. Gradually, the remaining kidney becomes accustomed to increased stress and compensates for the absence of a paired organ.
First time it is necessary to exclude weight lifting and strong physical exertion. In the morning and in the evening it is desirable to make walks, it is very useful to wipe with a wet towel and contrast shower. Particular attention will have to be paid to the purity of the skin, as it performs a excretory function, along with the remaining kidney.
After removal, the condition of a healthy kidney should be carefully monitored. You can not supercool, run chronic ailments, and engage in self-medication. Regular consultations of the urologist will help to evaluate objectively your condition. Take care of yourself, since the third kidney in the body is not provided.