Sciascopia - what is it? Methods of ophthalmology for determining the type of refraction of the eye
Skiascopy is a technique that helps to check the functional state of the eye. This research is based on the ability of the organ of vision to refract light rays, which is called refractoriness. The cornea and the lens respond to this process. If you spend a ski pain, then you can determine whether the patient falsifies the disease or not. The procedure is carried out both in children and adults, and it is also recommended for patients with intellectual disabilities, when it is impossible to determine visual acuity by other methods. Also, a skiascopy is also called a shadow test, keratoscopy and retinoscopy.
What is a skiascopy?
Skiascopy is a study helping to establish the pupil's ability to refract light. The first discoverer of this technique is Kunye, it is known approximately since 1873.Literally the name of this method is translated as "consider the shadow".During the examination, a specialist uses a skiascope, which is presented in the form of a mirror with a handle and two surfaces - flat and convex. Necessarily on the side of the patient is installed a light source at eye level, and the pupils are directed to the pupil of light, resulting in a light spot. In the center of the device is a hole through which the patient watches the shadow, constantly moving the pupil around the axis. The direction of movement of the light spot will depend on the applied mirror, patient refraction and distance.
When answering a question, a skiascopy - what it is, we will consider what distance is recommended for the procedure. During the examination, the distance between the patient and the specialist should be at least half a meter. To obtain accurate results of the study, cycloplegia is recommended. Determine the degree of disease can be exclusively specialist with the help of a ski-like ruler.
What are the indications for a skiascopy?
This method of eye examination is recommended for patients with visual impairments that were identified earlier in the examination. Also, do not exclude skiascopy and in such cases as:
- Myopia is a defect that is accompanied by a violation of the refraction of the eye. It arises as a result of many provoking factors, accompanied by a marked symptomatology. It is a progressive disease.
- Hyperopia is a pathological condition that is considered a common problem. It is diagnosed in different age groups. Occurs for many reasons, accompanied by severe symptoms. It can be treated, contact lenses for vision can be used.
- Astigmatism or combined disorders. This disease must necessarily be treated to avoid all sorts of complications. Often diagnosed in childhood. Causes are not fully established. It is accompanied by severe symptoms, treated and corrected with special lenses.
Skiascopia - what is it? This is a method of research that, in parallel with the primary diagnosis, helps to control the rate of development of pathologies and diseases, and also to track how effectively the prescribed treatment is.
Skiascopia is an informative diagnostic method that helps detect diseases and visual impairment in both adults and children. The basis of the method is objective data that helps to get the right results. It is worth remembering that this type of research is carried out exclusively in medical institutions, including in children's ophthalmology centers.
Why is it prescribed a ski pain?
Skiascopia is also recommended for the determination of visual impairment, which were not previously identified. If the patient has been diagnosed with astigmatism, then in addition to this study, additional tests are recommended that will help to prescribe the most effective treatment.
Also very often the technique is assigned to those patients who feign diseases and impair the functionality of the organs of vision. With regard to instrumental research, it is recommended more for the children's age group and patients with intellectual disabilities.
So, now it becomes clearer what it is - a skiascopy. This is a study that is not carried out in an alcoholic or narcotic state. Also, the procedure is not recommended for patients with mental disorders, which can be dangerous for others. In any case, the survey always uses the , , scapacroscopic rulers that help to make the correct diagnosis.
Technique Skiascopia is a common method of detecting visual impairment. This study has a number of positive points, such as:
- Economic side. For the study, expensive equipment is not required, so the procedure does not apply to costly methods of examination and diagnosis.
- Increased accuracy of results. From this indicator will depend on the correctness of the diagnosis, as well as the prescribed treatment. An important place during the survey is the professionalism of the specialist, which is worth paying attention to.
- Painlessness. During the procedure, the patient does not experience any discomfort. A very important point, especially when examining children.
- Simplicity. During the procedure, the patient is only required to sit still and fulfill all the requirements of a specialist.
From the above, it can be seen that skiascopia is a simple and effective method that helps to identify various diseases and visual impairments with minimal time and money.
Are there any contraindications?
Skiascopia - what is it? This examination, which has not only positive aspects, but also contraindications, which are necessarily taken into account when appointing the procedure. The patient is not recommended for a skiascopia if:
- Mental illnesses with objective unbalanced behavior are diagnosed. In such a state, the patient, during the examination, is able to harm not only himself, but also those around him.
- State of drug or alcoholic intoxication. In this situation, the specialist will not be able to make an accurate diagnosis, as the condition of the eye will be disturbed.
- The patient has photophobia.
- The patient suffers from an allergic reaction to Atropine or Cyclodol.
- The age category of the child does not exceed seven years.
- There is an eye disease - glaucoma or a suspicion of it.
If the above mentioned contraindications for the procedure were ignored by a specialist, the results of the study will be inaccurate and the prescribed treatment will be ineffective, it can even harm the condition or aggravate the situation.
How is a skiascopy performed?
Skiascopy refers to the instrumental method of eye examination, which is carried out in several stages. To obtain reliable results it is necessary to adhere to the fulfillment of all the points:
- Cyclodol or Atropine is injected into the eye of the patient for a short-term action. These drugs can provoke paralysis of the ciliary muscle, that is, cycloplegia.
- The patient is led into a darkened room and placed on a chair. On the contrary, a specialist is located, the distance between them must be at least 50 cm. Then a beam of light is sent to the patient in the eye.
- With the help of a skiascope, the doctor monitors the reaction of the patient's eye.
- To track reflexes, a specialist uses a two-way mirror to guide a beam of light. The tool is recommended to slowly rotate around the axis to see how the shadow moves.
- Next, a ski-like line with positive and negative lenses is used. The size of the lens used helps to determine the degree of anomaly of refraction of the eye.
This procedure, carried out correctly, helps to identify violations and successfully correct them using special optical instruments - lenses or glasses. They are considered to be quite effective in correcting refractive error anomalies. Sciascopy is carried out in the same way, regardless of the age of the patient and the medical institution, be it a children's ophthalmology center or a city hospital.
Methodology for determination of refraction
Refractive measurement methods may depend on the type of lenses that are used during the examination of the patient's eyes. In order to establish the degree of astigmatism, it is recommended that the patient undergo a cylinder incision, during which a trial spectacle frame is put on and various lenses, spherical and astigmatic, are placed in the nests. They help to create simultaneously neutralization of shadows.
The patient can also be given a type of examination, such as bar-skiascopy, during which special devices are used. They help to form a light source in the form of a strip. Schoolboys often spend banded skiascopy, as it has increased accuracy and reliability.
Only the specialist can determine the type of examination necessary for the patient after preliminary examination of the organs of vision and familiarization with the symptoms. Do not engage in self-diagnosis and therapy, as this can lead to negative consequences and worsening of the general condition.
What should I look for?
When carrying out this type of eye examination and diagnosis, the specialist must pay attention to important aspects. If you ignore these nuances, then this negligent attitude can lead to negative consequences and complications on the part of the visual function. So what should I pay attention to?
- The ruler on which the lenses are located should be in an upright position and 1.2 cm from the top of the convex part of the eyeball. If everything is done correctly, the result will be reliable.
- After using the drug, the patient should look at the hole that is located in the mirror. With stored accommodation, the patient will look past the face of the doctor.
- If the shadow on the patient's eye is not available for a distance of more than 1 m, then myopia is diagnosed - 1.0 Dpt.
- The survey results depend on the mirror used.
- A shadow sample must be carried out in a darkened room.
It should be remembered that if the shadow is unstable, this indicates a lack of cycloplegia.
During the procedure, special skiacoscopic rulers are used. The set necessarily includes frames with negative and positive lenses, which have different dioptries. Rulers have optical glasses, as well as an engine with additional lenses, with an optical power of 0.5 to 10 D.
The kit is stored in a special case, in closed form, to prevent corrosion of the metal. It is recommended that the surface of the device be treated occasionally with a napkin. After the examination, the handle must be treated with hydrogen peroxide, and once in 7-10 days, the device should be completely disinfected.
Skiascopy is a study that helps to identify and eliminate many impairments in visual function. It is considered a truthful and effective method, it is distinguished by its accessibility and painlessness. Based on the results obtained, treatment is prescribed and contact lenses for vision are recommended. It is widely used in all medical institutions.