Types of anesthesia in dentistry: types, description
Dental treatment, reminiscent of medieval torture, has sunk to oblivion. Modern equipment, effective and diverse types of anesthesia in dentistry is a completely new principle of work, which helps to minimize all discomfort. Of course, many people remember the experience of recent years and do not trust the booklets and advertising brochures of dentists too much. But, taking a chance, they are nevertheless convinced that there really is nothing to be afraid of. Especially if you ask for help in a timely manner. Simple treatment of caries or cosmetic procedures does not require the use of strong types of anesthesia. In dentistry, they are divided into several types, let's figure out what are the differences, advantages, and in which case you need to use this or that analgesic.
What is anesthesia?
The word "anesthesia" is of Greek origin and literally means "without feelings."The pharmacological action of anesthetics can spread to separate parts of the body( local anesthesia), they seem to turn off the transmission of pain sensations by nerve receptors to the brain or to the whole organism( general anesthesia).All types of anesthesia in dentistry are successfully used, although for general anesthesia there are reservations and special testimonies of the doctor.
A new generation of anesthetics
In the history of dental services, anesthesia as such is a big breakthrough. But at the same time, the first anesthetics had a number of contraindications, consequences and had serious side effects. This applies even to the usual painkillers, such as Novokain and Lidocaine, which are still widely used by doctors. Undoubtedly, they have good qualities, have an affordable price, which sometimes becomes a decisive factor in the choice of the drug. But comparatively low efficiency, high level of toxicity, side effects are forced to look for new drugs to perform anesthesia in dentistry. The types of anesthesia of the new generation are much safer, they show their effect more quickly, the effect of them is longer, and the concentration occurs exactly in the right place. It is worth noting that complications from the administration of an anesthetic occur when you select the wrong drug. The doctor must find out from the patient how he had previously suffered anesthesia, whether there were complications, what was the effect.
Classification of drugs for anesthesia that are used in the treatment of teeth
Types of anesthesia in dentistry can be divided into two types: local drugs and general anesthesia. As mentioned above, local drugs have a concentrated action in a certain place, while general anesthesia completely disconnects the patient's consciousness, and he does not experience any sensations during manipulation. But, in addition to drug anesthesia, other methods have their own niche. What can be non-drug anesthesia in dentistry? The types are given below:
- anesthesia with electrical impulses;
- anesthesia through perception of sounds.
These methods are extremely rare, literate professionals who can really apply this practice are not enough. In addition, not every patient will be susceptible to this effect, this requires special equipment. All this does not allow developing non-drug anesthesia widely enough.
Types of local anesthesia in dentistry
Each patient requires a personal approach not only in treatment, but also during the selection of an anesthetic drug. The use of standard procedures is also excluded because the physician's intervention may be required for various reasons. So, the area of anesthesia should be different. Depending on this, these types of anesthetics in dentistry are distinguished:
In this case, the last two types of anesthesia can be conditionally combined into one group. Their use occurs in the form of an injection, while the application anesthesia can be in the form of a spray or ointment. The medicine is applied directly to the gum near the affected tooth. Its effect is very short-lived, therefore it is impossible to treat serious problems with such a preparation. Its use is necessary to reduce the pain effect during the injection, to pull out the milk teeth, if they are mobile, to try on implants, crowns, during the removal of tartar.
Anesthesia in the treatment of pulpitis, nerve removal, deep caries
In such cases, as well as many others, apply a deeper "freeze".This group includes all types of infiltration anesthesia. In dentistry for such anesthesia, it is customary to use "Lidocaine", "Novocaine", "Ultracaine", "Prilokain."To achieve a better effect together with the anesthetic, the doctor uses vasoconstrictors, stabilizers and preservatives. However, not all patients this "rattling" mixture affects without complications, so there are drugs that can be used in its pure form. The action of infiltration anesthetics is not very long( up to one hour), but it is quite enough to help the patient.
Preparations for surgical interventions
Types of conductive anesthesia in dentistry are used in those cases when it is necessary to reach the largest possible zone of anesthesia, or long-term anesthesia is required. Their action lasts up to several hours and is achieved by anesthetizing the entire nerve. The injection is done at some distance from the surgical site. Such anesthesia allows you to treat multiple teeth, perform operations on the gums without re-anesthesia. Drugs of this type include "Bupivacaine", "Echydocaine".
help systematize types of anesthesia in dentistry scheme table:
General anesthesia as a separate type of anesthesia
The scheme is not in vain anesthesia isolated individual item. Such anesthesia is a serious medication. Not every clinic or private office has the right to conduct dental treatment under general anesthesia. For this it is necessary to have qualifications, special equipment, an opportunity to help the patient in case of side effects. Most often, such anesthesia is used in very severe cases, or when the patient is afraid of panic any manipulation of the doctor. The drug can be injected into the body through a mask, when the patient inhales the anesthetic vapor and falls asleep at the right time. But from this technique dentistry departs due to the fact that the constant inhalation of narcotic vapors by the doctor himself is fraught with adverse consequences for his health. Another option is to inject anesthesia intravenously.
Use of anesthesia for atypical cases
Anesthesia in dentistry, the types and methods of application directly depend on the patient. As statistics show, more than half of all visitors to the dentist's office are people who fall into the risk group for one reason or another. This includes patients with heart disease, neurological problems, people with elevated blood pressure, pregnant and lactating women. None of these categories of the population should be denied timely and qualified assistance. Moreover, the pharmacological market provides good, quality drugs that can be used with minimal risk.
The lack of anesthesia during the treatment of dental problems is fraught with even greater deterioration of health, so a competent doctor must choose the most successful drug.
Anesthesia in dentistry for children
Children may also need the help of a dentist, fortunately, most often the solution to their problems does not force them to use potent drugs. Often enough applique anesthesia. This is an additional advantage, because the child does not even need to endure the pain from the injection.
It is worth considering that not all aerosols and ointments are applicable to children. There are age limits. Under them falls "Dikain", to children under 10 years it is contraindicated. Also it is worth paying attention to whether the doctor uses adrenaline to enhance the effect of anesthetic. Up to 5 years of age, it is not used at all, but at a later age - in small doses and with great care.