Multiple sclerosis: the first signs. Multiple Sclerosis: Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease affecting the dorsal and brain. It occurs as a result of inflammatory foci on myelin. It is a fatty tissue located around the nerve fibers of the spine and brain, which protects them like the insulation of electrical wires. The defeat of the myelin sheath leads to the further spread of inflammatory foci throughout the CNS.
This disease should not be confused with senile sclerosis. The word "absent-minded" in its name means nothing less than the presence of small foci of the disease, which seem to be scattered throughout the nervous system. But "sclerosis" indicates the nature of the disorders. This is a scar tissue that looks like a plaque. In medicine, it is called sclerotized.
Prevalence of pathology
Patients with multiple sclerosis are usually young people between the ages of fifteen and forty. But the disease has exceptions. Sometimes it is observed both in childhood and in more mature age. However, when a person has crossed his 50-year boundary, the risk of this pathology is decreasing at times.
Multiple sclerosis in women is three times more common than in men. But they tolerate the disease more easily.
The prevalence of the disease is affected by geographical and ethnic factors. So, the most affected people are those from North America and Northern Europe. This is due to a lack of vitamin D, which is produced in the human body under the influence of sunlight. But the Koreans, the Chinese and the Japanese know little about this pathology.
Who else is affected by multiple sclerosis? The risk group is people living in large cities. In rural areas, pathology is less common. All these facts indicate that the development of multiple sclerosis is affected by an unfavorable environment.
The disease is fairly common. This is from 20 to 30 cases for every one hundred thousand people in the population. And with the diagnosis of "multiple sclerosis" many young people get disability after their injuries.
Why does the disease occur?
The reason why multiple sclerosis occurs is still unknown. But in recent years, scientists associate the development of this pathology with violations in the work of genetics and the immune system.
In a normal state, our "body protection" reacts sharply to the penetration into the body of an unknown object, which can be any virus or microorganism. She first attacks the "invader," and then removes it. The speed of this process is affected by the speed of the connection between the links of immunity, as well as the production of cells designed to eliminate the danger.
What happens with multiple sclerosis? Scientists believe that the immune system undergoes a change under the influence of the virus. She begins to perceive myelin as a dangerous object and attacks the cells of this adipose tissue. This phenomenon is called "autoimmunity".
After such an attack, the myelin sheath begins to regenerate. But while this process lasts, immunity reveals the nerve fibers in another place. On the site of inflammation appears scar tissue in the form of plaques. They also prevent the normal transmission of impulses from the brain to all organs. As a result, a person loses the ability to effectively manage the actions of his body.
The provoking factors of
The development of multiple sclerosis is facilitated by:
- a lack in the body of vitamin D;
- severe stress;
is a genetic predisposition that is expressed in the presence of altered genes;
- bacterial and viral diseases.
Some scientists believe that the development of multiple sclerosis is promoted by vaccination against hepatitis B. However, this theory has not been confirmed to date.
There is also an opinion that pathology can be caused by a virus. For example, they may have a mutant measles pathogen. This theory is confirmed by the fact that in practice the patients' condition improves after the introduction of antiviral interferons.
Forms of the disease
What are the first signs of this pathology? Multiple sclerosis begins to manifest itself depending on the course of the disease, which can be:
- a second-progressive;
The first manifestations of multiple sclerosis of a benign type are numerous seizures. However, after some time the periods of remission become more and more prolonged. This occurs in connection with the restoration of the myelin sheath. The patient, who has benign multiple sclerosis, treatment results in almost complete recovery. This form, observed in 20% of such patients, never leads to disability.
What are the first signs of a progressive form? Multiple sclerosis in this case manifests itself with a gradual increase in neurological symptoms. In this case, there are periods of stabilization of exacerbations, which are noted in 15% of patients. Despite the fact that multiple sclerosis in the primary-progressive type passes without special exacerbations, it often leads to loss of ability to work. More often it is observed in those people who fell ill after forty years.
With the remitting form of pathology, what are its first signs? Multiple sclerosis in this case occurs with the manifestation of acute symptoms. It is very difficult to foresee what they will be for each particular patient because of their difference. For example, in 85% of patients at the initial stage there is a formation of neurological disorders. The next day they are completely or gradually begin to regress. But sometimes the periods of aggravation are longer. They torture a person for several days or even weeks. In order for the damaged fiber to return to normal, it will take several months. Only during this period a person stops suffering the symptoms of multiple sclerosis( if there is no constant formation of an autoimmune process).With the remitting form of multiple sclerosis, the functions of diseased organs can only be partially restored.
With a secondary progressive form, the symptoms of pathology increase gradually. Signs of ailment in this case are manifested after a cold or after inflammation of the respiratory system. Symptoms of a second-progressive form of multiple sclerosis can be traced back to the background of bacterial infections. At the initial stage this type of pathology proceeds like the remitting form, that is, with alternating exacerbations and improvement of the condition. But then the disease progresses. In such a course, multiple sclerosis, even five years after the first symptoms, leads to disability.
The most rare form of pathology is its progressive-remitting type. In this case, the patient's condition worsens gradually. In addition, the progression of the disease is accompanied by acute attacks, after which there is some improvement in well-being.
How to recognize the disease?
When does pathology show its first signs? Multiple sclerosis is characterized by a long latent period, which in some cases is several years. This is explained by the fact that at the initial stage the functions of damaged nerve fibers are compensated for by healthy areas. The first symptoms of multiple sclerosis occur with lesions of 40 percent or more.
Multiple sclerosis in each person manifests itself in different ways. Certain types of primary symptoms do not have this disease. But most often the presence of an illness in the body is a violation of vision and loss of sensitivity.
The first signs of pathology depend on where the main center of multiple sclerosis is located. In this case, the symptoms can be primary, secondary and tertiary.
The first of them appear due to damage to the myelin sheath. This process leads to a deterioration in the patency of nerve impulses. Secondary symptoms appear already against the background of primary symptoms. Tertiary are fully characterized by the full scale of the disease.
The first manifestations of the pathology of
Sometimes even qualified specialists can not recognize the disease at the early stages of its manifestation. The causes of these or other ailments they consider other ailments. That is why it is worth to have information about the first signs of multiple sclerosis. This will help to identify the disease in time and begin treatment.
So, at the initial stage, multiple sclerosis causes:
1. Visual impairment. Attacks of this disease are the eye nerves. If the body develops multiple sclerosis, the person feels the pain in the eyes constantly. Sometimes they can arise only when the century moves. Sometimes only one eye is pricked, it seems that something has got into it. The fact that it is time for a person to consult a doctor is indicated by a blurred or forked picture, as well as involuntary movements of eyeballs.
2. Loss of balance. In a patient with multiple sclerosis, dizziness often occurs when he abruptly gets out of bed or has to keep his body( for example, during dancing or riding a bicycle).This is due to the fact that the disease reaches the nerve cells of the spinal cord, which causes a loss of balance.
3. Disturbance of sensitivity. Among the first signs of multiple sclerosis are sensations of itching, burning, tingling, or "goose bumps" in the legs or hands, as if they had been detained. This symptom should also be paid attention, although often doctors treat it to other diseases. Another sign of loss of sensitivity are attacks of heat and cold. Such changes in temperature under stable weather conditions should cause a person to be wary.
Sometimes people complain about the loss of the feeling of the ground underfoot. In order to avoid stumbling, they are forced to constantly look down. This is also the initial symptom of multiple sclerosis.
4. Mental and emotional disorders. The reason for going to the doctor can serve as a feeling of fatigue after a long rest. This is an early sign of multiple sclerosis. The disease also appears in those cases when it is difficult for a person to remember or retell information. Signs of pathology are also constant irritability and discontent, absence of former ambitions and depression, as well as excessive "play on the public".Of course, after 40-45 years, any person will attribute all these signs to the impending old age. However, young people in this case should consult a doctor.
5. Feeling of constant fatigue. Of course, it is familiar to workaholics, young mothers and students. However, with its constant manifestation, it is worthwhile to see a doctor. The feeling of constant fatigue overtakes people with multiple sclerosis already in the morning. Still lying in bed, they have a feeling of heaviness as after working out a triple shift. Sometimes this feeling covers the patient right on the street.
6. Menstrual cycle failure in women. The presence of foci of pathology on nerve fibers leads to a violation of the hormonal background and a general disorder of the reproductive system.
7. Bowel dysfunction. The first signs of multiple sclerosis can tell a person his digestive system. If he, under the condition of small consumption of flour products for a long time rarely goes to the toilet and his constipation becomes frequent, then this should be cause for concern. Of course, such symptoms often occur with a sharp set of body weight, with a diet for weight loss or during pregnancy. And here it is necessary to analyze whether you still had any signs of multiple sclerosis.
8. The trembling of the hands. If a person has noticed that he is not fastening buttons or inserting a thread into a needle, this may be the first sign of multiple sclerosis. After all, one of the symptoms of pathology is hand trembling.
Multiple sclerosis is an insidious disease due to inconsistent symptoms.
Today, a person can have an eye ache, and tomorrow he will only feel dizzy and weak. Then everything can stop, and the patient will feel completely normal.
In order to determine the presence of the disease, a neurological examination of the patient and his oral interrogation are carried out by a specialist. Additional methods of investigation are also used.
The most informative of them today is magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord and brain. In addition, by monitoring the patient, the doctor directs him to immunological monitoring, that is, regular blood testing.
Treatment of multiple sclerosis
To date, scientists have not yet found a drug that can help people get rid of this disease. Physicians for patients who are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, prescribe medications during the course of therapy that relieve the symptoms of the disease, ease the condition, and prolong the period of remission and prevent the appearance of various complications.
Treatment for exacerbation of
To date, two types of therapy are used to eliminate multiple sclerosis. The first of these is the administration of drugs in case of exacerbations and worsening of the patient's condition. The second type of therapy is interval. It is applied to those patients in whom a prolonged improvement in the condition with the diagnosed "multiple sclerosis" is observed. The medicine in this case patients take a long time.
Exacerbation is a deterioration in health, lasting more than a day. In this case, the patient is prescribed adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisone in the form of injections or tablets. This allows not only to remove inflammation, but also to prevent the occurrence of functional disorders. The greatest effect with this therapy is provided by a combination of such drugs as Cortisone and Cyclophosphamide. Also, the doctor will individually select the medications to eliminate the patient's symptoms.
Integral treatment of
The goal of this therapy is to restore the nerve cells in the period between exacerbations. At the same time prescribed by the doctor medications protect the spinal cord and the brain from attacks of the immune system.
During this period and when multiple sclerosis is at the stage of remission, treatment is performed with the help of such drugs as "Cyclosporin A", "Azathioprine", "Mitoksatron" and others.
Sometimes the patient is offered and surgical treatment. In order to reduce the immune attack, they can remove the spleen or the thymus gland. Sometimes such patients make a bone marrow transplant.
Traditional medicine recommendations
You can also support the patient at home. What, then, is the treatment for multiple sclerosis? Folk remedies recommended by healers:
1. Garlic oil. For its preparation, the crushed vegetable head is insisted on sunflower oil. Use with lemon juice.
2. Honey with onions. This remedy strengthens the vessels of the extremities and resolves thrombi. To make it, the pressed onion juice is mixed with honey.
3. Spirituous tincture of garlic. This remedy fights with sclerotic formations and helps to relieve spasms of blood vessels.
In addition, traditional medicine recommends that all patients with multiple sclerosis not include in their daily diet of sweets. The menu should contain products with low cholesterol, as well as those that do not cause a rise in pressure. In this case, it is desirable to fill the dishes with vegetable oils. It is also recommended to drink green tea and natural juices frequently.
Life expectancy of people with multiple sclerosis
How many years have been measured for patients suffering from this neurological disease? It depends on:
- timeliness of diagnosis;
- the age at which the disease began;
- the effectiveness of treatment;
- development of various complications;
- the presence of other pathologies.
How many live with multiple sclerosis? At the beginning of the 20th century, patients with this diagnosis were measured for a maximum of thirty years. And this is only if the course of the disease was favorable.
How many live with multiple sclerosis today? In the 21st century, in connection with the development of medicine, these people receive more comprehensive treatment. On average, their lives are seven years shorter than their peers. However, each rule has its own exceptions, so it is very difficult to predict the course of events.