Infectious pneumonia: symptoms, treatment, transmission routes
Infectious pneumonia is a form of pneumonia. Such pathology is formed when a bacterial agent enters the human body. Most often, the causative agents of this disease are bacteria, viruses and fungi. In the article, we will consider in more detail the main causes of the onset of pneumonia, as well as the general symptoms of the disease in both children and adults.
Inflammers of the lungs
Many are interested in pneumonia - is it an infectious disease or not? Yes, this pathology is caused by pathogenic microorganisms. In this case, there is a huge number of them, provoking the development of pneumonia. In many cases, the cause of the disease is such pathogens:
- the smallest bacteria - mycoplasma;
- RSV( respiratory syncytial virus);
- MBT( Mycobacterium tuberculosis);
- anaerobic bacteria of chlamydia.
Infectious pneumonia as transmitted?
This form of lung disease refers to acute infectious pathologies. It can be infected in several ways. For example, by airborne droplets, if certain types of bacteria enter the body. Infectious pneumonia is transmitted during a conversation with an infected person or through a kiss. But the possibility of infection occurs only with weakened immunity.
Inflammation of the lungs is also transmitted parenterally. When there is a foci of infection in the body, the pathology can spread along the bloodstream to other tissues and organs. Another disease can pass from a pregnant woman to a future baby.
Long stagnant processes in the drainage function of the lungs also lead to the development of pneumonia. Because the congestion in the respiratory tract of mucus leads to the multiplication of microbes. In addition, pneumonia can appear due to the clogging of the bronchi. This condition creates excellent conditions for the life of harmful microorganisms.
Infectious pneumonia in children is transmitted, as a rule, vertically - during labor or aspirating - during inhalation of droplets or dust with pathogens.
Bacterial agents under favorable conditions settle in connective tissue, bronchi and alveoli. Poisoning substances that secrete pathogenic microorganisms cause the development of pneumonia. The incubation period of the disease is from 2-3 hours to several weeks, depending on the type of pathogen.
What factors cause pneumonia?
Any infection after penetration into the body can trigger the onset of a disease. However, with strong immunity, even a mild form of pneumonia does not develop, since defensive forces that destroy foreign agents are triggered. And pathogenic bacteria do not even have time to multiply, to cause pathological processes. There may be an infectious pneumonia due to the following reasons:
- Negative effects of the external environment, namely air pollution by harmful substances.
- Strong supercooling. This reason is relevant not only in the autumn-winter period, but also in the summer. For example, cooling the body with ice water or staying in a cold place for a long time.
- Acute respiratory viral infection. This pathology is the most favorable factor for the development of the inflammatory process in the lungs. In this case, pneumonia occurs as a complication of viral disease. This is due to the addition of other pathogens, unfinished or improper treatment.
- Passive or active smoking. This habit weakens lung tissue and immunity.
Other causes of pneumonia
In addition to these reasons, each person has an individual resistance threshold, and there may still be a concomitant or chronic disease. These factors exacerbate the state of the body and promote the progression of inflammatory processes in the lungs, which causes pathology in a more severe form. There is a risk of complications, especially in elderly and young children.
Infectious pneumonia: symptoms of
This disease can be focal or partial. And according to the nature of the course of the process, acute and chronic inflammation of the lungs are distinguished. In the first case, the ailment begins suddenly and has pronounced symptoms. It is easier to detect it, the patient will necessarily turn to the doctor with weakness and high temperature. Acute infectious pneumonia has the following symptoms: chills, fever, cough, fever, rapid breathing, unpleasant sensations in the side and chest area.
If a person has immunity in good condition, then he will cope with the pathology in 2-3 days, of course, not without the use of medicines prescribed by a doctor.
To detect a disease in a child in time, you need to know how infectious pneumonia manifests itself. Symptoms in children depend on the degree of its progression. In this pathology, there are:
- shadows on X-rays;
- weakened breathing and wheezing in the lungs;
- general condition worsening and fever;
- pale nasolabial triangle;
- shortness of breath;
- rapid breathing;
- fast fatigue;
- cough( in infants it is rare);
- poor appetite or total refusal of the baby from eating;
- increased sweating.
But with pneumonia of this form the symptoms are mild. Quite often in such a course of illness, the patient writes off the deterioration of his health for a cold. As a result, he does not receive proper treatment, launching a pathological process, which leads to serious trouble.
Infectious pneumonia of chronic form can lead to the appearance of bronchitis and inflammation of the sinuses of the nose. If the patient takes alcohol or smokes with such a disease, the recovery will be prolonged for a long time, because the body will not be able to resist it, since they will all go to restore it.
The environment also seriously influences people's health. The percentage of people with pneumonia is much higher in places where there is a bad ecological situation, there are sharp temperature jumps, there is a lot of dustiness and gas contamination.
This disease can calm down and for a long time not manifest itself, continuing to negatively affect the body. If there are no signs of infectious pneumonia, then such a state should alert, since a temporary weakening occurs before the turbulent course.
When lung inflammation passes into a chronic form, exacerbations begin to occur more often, disrupting gas exchange in the lungs. In this course of the disease, several other internal organs suffer, in particular the cardiovascular system. It should be remembered that infectious pneumonia without the necessary treatment alone will not pass.
Complications of pneumonia
If, when the first signs of a pathology do not seek the help of a specialist, or if the therapy scheme is incorrectly chosen, there is a danger of negative consequences. These include pleurisy, bronchial asthma, pulmonary edema and a purulent-destructive pathological process in them, acute respiratory failure.
Among other things, complications outside the lungs may appear: anemia, infectious-toxic shock, hepatitis, endocarditis, glomerulonephritis, meningitis, pericarditis. In severe disease, it is possible to develop intoxication psychosis and an acute pulmonary heart.
Infectious pneumonia, the symptoms of which are described above, begin in most cases with an obsessive cough. At the first stages of the disease, it is dry, but after a while it becomes wet with a huge secretion of mucous secretions.
If there are several provoking factors at once, the pathology can arise abruptly, manifesting itself as bright symptoms of respiratory failure. With the simultaneous development of pleurisy and pneumonia, it becomes difficult for a person to breathe.
To diagnose pneumonia of an infectious nature, physicians resort to diagnostic measures. During the examination the patient takes into account his age and the state of immunity during infection. If there are worrying symptoms of lung disease, you should immediately visit a doctor. After all, it is this illness that is the leader in lethal outcomes with untimely application for medical help.
To establish an accurate diagnosis, the patient will have to undergo various procedures and take all necessary tests. To date, the most effective way to detect pneumonia is computed tomography. It allows you to see even minor changes. This diagnostic technique is much more effective than fluorography or radiography.
Inflammation of the lungs
Infectious pneumonia is a disease that can not be treated with alternative medicine. To prevent the development of complications, you should immediately visit the clinic after the appearance of the first signs. When the disease is detected at an early stage, they can prescribe therapy on an outpatient basis. The patient at the same time must fulfill all the doctor's prescriptions and comply with bed rest.
If the diagnosis of "infectious pneumonia" is diagnosed, the treatment is carried out in several stages. After the establishment of the pathogen, the patient is prescribed antibacterial drugs. Medications are selected taking into account the spectrum of action and sensitivity to the bacterial agent. In some cases, resort to combined antibacterial treatment.
To avoid the possible emergence of dysbiosis and candidiasis from taking antibiotics, use probiotics and antifungal agents. In cases of severe inflammation and high fever, medicines from the NSAID group are used: Diklak, Nimesil.
If the patient is concerned about a dry cough, prescribe drugs such as "Broncholitin" and "Libexin", while wet - use expectorants and mucolytics, such as Ambroxol, "Acestad" and "ATSTS."
During treatment, biogenic stimulants, vitamin complexes and adaptogenes are used. To accelerate the resorption of infiltrates and eliminate signs of intoxication, use glucocorticosteroids - "Prednisolone" or "Dexamethasone".
Older people, young children and infants should treat pneumonia of an infectious species only in a medical institution. Quite often, traditional therapy is combined with other measures, since pathology in this category of patients can develop too quickly. Additional methods of treatment include:
- Connection to the device for providing artificial ventilation.
- Intravenous administration of antibacterial drugs.
How to prevent the development of infectious pneumonia?
This pathology is easier to prevent than treat. To avoid pneumonia, it is recommended to carry out preventive vaccination. Still it is necessary to strengthen immunity, to limit contact with infected people and in due time to eliminate catarrhal diseases. It is impossible to engage in self-medication with pneumonia, since such actions can lead to serious consequences and even death.