Hematologic analysis of blood
Hematology analysis is a study that is most often prescribed by a physician in the initial
examination of a patient. The most simple and easily feasible way to learn about the problems in the body and understand which way to move on is to donate blood to hematology. It can be done in all municipal polyclinics without exception, hospitals and paid medical centers.
What information can I get?
Hematology analysis is a description of its most important components, giving an idea of the presence of inflammatory and oncological processes.
During the analysis, all the cells that make up the blood are studied, their size, mass, quantity and percentage are determined. In addition, the level of hemoglobin, hematocrit and the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation reaction are measured.
This blood test is performed on a hematological analyzer.
With the help of the results of the study, the physician can understand whether the treatment is effectively selected for the patient, whether its correction is needed, and if necessary, what exactly needs to be changed.
Main blood cells and their functions
What does hematological analysis reveal?
Total number of cells studied 3 - platelets, erythrocytes and leukocytes. All of them have their own purpose and carry out certain activities.
Leukocytes are the main blood protectors, fighting with penetrating harmful microorganisms. These are white blood cells of round shape, having their own nucleus. The centers of their reproduction are special nodes called lymphatic ones. They serve as the main barriers to protection against dangerous particles.
If for some reason the quantity or quality of white blood cells decreases, the nodes swell, allowing the infection to spread through them. Immunity falls, and immune responses slow down.
In norm of leukocytes should be 4,5-11 thousand / mkl. This includes their varieties.
Neutrophils, the proportion of which occupies more than 72% of all types of leukocytes. These small cells are located mainly in the tissues of the human body, their proportion in the blood is negligible. This location is due to the fact that neutrophils must first find a place infected with pathogenic bacteria and neutralize them.
To increase their number contribute to bacterial or fungal infections, inflammation, the emergence of tumors, bleeding, tissue damage, some medicines. Reduction is observed when obtaining a virus, radiation dose.
Eosinophils excrete toxic substances and their decay products from the body. It depends on them how well healing of wounds and regeneration of damaged tissues will proceed, as well as resistance to allergens.
The norm in adults is from 1 to 5% in the leukocyte formula. The increase in eosinophils is recorded with various allergic reactions, helminthic invasion, the growth of malignant tumors, liver cirrhosis and gastrointestinal ulcers.
The peculiarity of these cells is that their increase in infectious diseases indicates the onset of recovery of the patient. The number of eosinophils decreases with a general exhaustion of the organism, frequent stress, lack of sleep, and postoperative period.
Basophils represent the smallest group of leukocytes, they are slightly less than 1% of the total, but they are the largest. Thanks to these cells, many allergens and poisonous particles can not be activated in the body, for example, after the bite of insects.
High basophils can be triggered by a violation of the level of thyroid hormones, colitis in peptic ulcer disease, lack of iron content. Their level falls during pregnancy, the days when ovulation occurs, in the presence of worms.
These indicators also reveal hematological analysis.
Monocytes are a type of oval leukocytes with a homogeneous structure. Their norm for an adult is 3-11%.These are some kind of cleaners, removing old cells and destroying foreign substances trapped in the body, as well as destroying antigen binding antibodies.
An increase in the number of monocytes was observed during the course of infectious diseases in severe form, a decrease in anemia of various etiologies. If monocytes are almost not detected, one can assume the presence of such complex pathologies as leukemia or sepsis.
Lymphocytes responsible for maintaining immunity at the proper level can exist for more than 10 years, carrying a immune memory. This is why many diseases can be treated only once in a lifetime. Their blood contains about 19-37%.
With the help of lymphocytes, mutated cells that carry distorted information are destroyed. However, a sharp increase in their number may be a manifestation of a tumor developing in the bone marrow. A slight increase is noted in cases of viral infections. Lymphocyte deficiency causes bacterial infections or lymphoma.
That's what the hematological blood test reveals. But this is not all.
Erythrocytes are cells that maintain a normal level of oxygen in the blood and release carbon dioxide produced in the process of respiration and circulation. With their help, enrichment of all tissues with nutrients is also ensured. Oxygen metabolism is provided by means of hemoglobin, which contain red blood cells. If its level is insufficient, hypoxia may occur.
Erythrocytes are very easily compressed and can vary up to 3 times. The blood content for men and women is 4-5 million cubic meters.mm and 3.7-4.7 million / cubic meters.mm respectively. If they are more than normal, it indicates problems with kidneys, dehydration, the presence of tumors, erythremia. Taking corticosteroids also increases the level of red blood cells.
This easily determines the hematological blood test.
Their level is lowered as a result of various anemias, in the period of bearing of the child and with an excess of fluid in the tissues.
Platelets provide the vascular walls and tissues of the body with the ability to remain intact, increasing their regenerative abilities. In addition, due to their property to clog vessels, hemorrhages stop, blood coagulates.
Platelets can stick together not only between themselves, but also with other cells, which is very important for protection against bacteria entering the blood. After gluing pathogenic cells, the platelet is destroyed, destroying also the source of danger. This same property uses the body to hold together cells of veins and blood vessels.
This is an informative hematological blood test. The norm is 180-320 thousand units / μl. If it is elevated, the probability of tuberculosis, leukemia, oncological processes in the liver and kidneys, arthritis, enteritis, exacerbation of infectious diseases, acute stress, intoxication of the body, anemia is not ruled out.
If the platelets are less than normal, diseases such as hepatitis, destruction of the liver and bone marrow, excess and deficiency of thyroid hormones, alcoholism and prolonged intake of certain medications are possible.
Description of other indicators in the analysis of
What else can a hematological blood test determine? Deciphering is quite simple.
After studying information about blood cells, the next in a series is the hematocrit indicator. This is the percentage of all blood cells and plasma. Normally, this number is within the limits of 39-49%, if small deviations are recorded, this is not a reason for a more thorough examination, since this indicator is needed only for general informativeness.
Significant increases or decreases suggest that there is a problem with the number of different blood cells. A high index of hematocrit is most often manifested with a prolonged lack of oxygen or water in the tissues of the body, various diseases of the blood and kidneys. Low hematocrit can be during pregnancy, anemia, hyperhydration.
Quite informative hematological blood test. Decoding in adults and children is similar, but there are certain differences.
It is also important to investigate the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation - ESR.Normally, it should be 1-12 mm / hour, depending on sex and age. Too high ESR is characteristic for oncology and inflammation of various origins, kidney disease or hormonal imbalance, caused, inter alia, by fetal and lactation, by menstrual bleeding. The rate of OE falls most often when there is a violation of coagulability and blood density, which can provoke unceasing bleeding - hemophilia.
Hematological blood test can determine all these important indicators. Decoding should be done by a specialist.
Self-interpretation of the hematologic blood test can only be used for background information. All conclusions and appointments must be made only by a doctor, since other tests and examinations may be required to clarify the diagnosis.
In order to prevent the development of a large number of diseases or detect them at the initial stage, it is recommended to take such an analysis at least annually, every year, of the adult population, to children and the elderly every six months. Deciphering the hematological analysis will help to avoid running forms of pathologies.