Determination of the blood group.
The human blood group is an inherited factor and is determined by the genotype of its parents. There are several systems of blood groups. The most popular is the ABO, which is determined by the corresponding genes.
Blood group determination is necessary for any transfusion( erythrocyte mass and plasma), as well as for transplant operations. Any manipulation with the tissues of the human body requires compliance with antigenic compliance, which is determined by the group in the AB0 system.
Today there are two main directions( method) for determining the blood group. Both of them are reliable and reliable. The first and most simple is the determination of the blood group by the reaction of isohemagglutination. The second is a cross method( the detection of agglutinogens by the first method and the additional determination of agglutinins by means of erythrocyte suspension).The variation of the first method is the determination of the blood group by tsoliklons( unlike the method of standard sera, tsoliklons are not subject to HIV and hepatitis contamination).
Sampling with isohemagglutinating sera
Serum contains agglutinins( antibodies) for four groups, the activity of which is determined by the titer.
When the patient's blood serum is mixed with standard serums, an agglutination is observed to determine the group( positive reaction is the adhesion of erythrocytes followed by flocculation, with the serum discolored).Negative reaction manifests a uniform pink color without flocculation.
Interpretation of results of
If sera produce a negative reaction during reaction 3, then blood group O( I).
With positive O( I) and B( III) and negative A( II), blood group A( II).
If sera O( I) and A( II) are positive and B( II) are negative, this is group B( III).
When all three sera give a positive reaction, the blood of group AB( IV).In this case, an additional study with the serum of the blood of the AB( IV) group is necessary. A negative agglutination test confirms the AB( IV) blood group.
Using blood ticks, the blood group is determined in the same way. The main difference between tsiolikons from standard sera is the complete absence of polyagglutination as a result of nonspecific reactions of erythrocytes. Another special feature of tsoliklonalnyh reactions for the diagnosis of groups by AB0 - high avidity( that is, the visual expression of the agglutination reaction).In comparison with standard sera, the avidity of zeolites is significantly higher, which increases the reliability of the delivered samples.
The method of determining the blood group is basically reduced to the formulation of specific agglutination reactions. On the plate( or plate), standard serums or tsoliklons are applied to special wells, then a few drops of blood are added to each of them. The reaction is detected within two to three minutes while shaking the plate( plates) with the reagents. As mentioned above - the resulting large bright red flakes indicate a positive reaction, that is, the presence of antigens to standard serum antibodies for this blood group.
Thus, the definition of the blood group is a simple reaction and can be carried out in two main variations of the technique. The most complex of them are the most informative and reliable. The significance of a correctly identified blood group is very high, as it must be taken into account when carrying out various transfusions and transplantations. That is why before performing any operation, the patient's blood grouping tests are performed.