Hardness gives bones useful substances contained in food products
The musculoskeletal system is the basis of the body. The skeleton protects individual organs from mechanical damage, so the viability of the person as a whole depends on his condition. In this article we will examine the composition of bones, the features of their structure and the substances that are necessary for their growth and development.
Features of bone structure
Bone is a type of connective tissue. It consists of specialized cells and a large amount of intercellular substance. Together, this structure is both strong and elastic. Hardness is attached to the bones, above all, specialized cells - osteocytes. They have many outgrowths, by means of which they are connected with each other.
Visually, osteocytes resemble a network. The intercellular substance is the elastic basis of bone tissue. It consists of fibers of collagen protein, a mineral base.
Composition of bones
The fourth part of all the chemical composition of bones is water. It is the basis for the flow of all metabolic processes. Hardness gives bones inorganic substances. These are calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium salts, as well as phosphorus compounds. Their percentage is 50%.
To prove their importance for this type of fabric, you can conduct a simple experiment. To do this, the bone must be placed in a solution of hydrochloric acid. As a result, the mineral substances will dissolve. The bone becomes so elastic that it can be tied into a knot.
25% of the chemical composition of organic substances. They are represented by an elastic collagen protein. It gives elasticity to this tissue. If you burn the bone on low heat, the water will evaporate, and the organic matter will burn. In this case, the bone will become brittle and may crumble.
What substances impart bone to hardness
The chemical composition of bone tissue changes throughout the life of a person. At a young age, organic substances predominate in it. During this period, the bones are flexible and soft. Therefore, with an incorrect position of the body and excessive loads, the skeleton can be bent, causing a violation of posture. Prevent this can be systematic exercise and physical activity.
Over time, the amount of mineral salts increases in the bones. At the same time, they lose their elasticity. Hardness gives bones mineral salts, which include calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, fluorine. But with excessive loads, they can lead to a breach of integrity and fractures.
Calcium is especially important for bones. Its mass in the human body is 1 kg in women and 1.5 kg in men.
The role of calcium in the body
99% of the total calcium is in the bones, forming a strong skeleton skeleton. The remaining percentage is for blood. This macronutrient is the building material of teeth and bones, a prerequisite for their growth and development.
In the human body, calcium also regulates the work of muscle tissue, including cardiac tissue. Together with magnesium and sodium, it affects the level of blood pressure, and with prothrombin - on its coagulability.
The activation of enzymes, which triggers the mechanism of synthesis of neurotransmitters, also depends on the level of calcium. These are biologically active substances through which the impulse passes from the neural tissue cell to the muscles. This macronutrient also affects the activation of a number of enzymes that perform various functions: biopolymer digestion, fat metabolism, amylase synthesis and maltase.
Calcium enhances the permeability of the surface apparatus of cells, in particular their membranes. This is very important for the transport of various substances and maintenance of homeostasis - the constancy of the internal environment of the body.
As you can see, a lack of calcium in the body can lead to serious disruption of its functioning. Every day a child should consume about 600 mg of this substance, an adult - 1000 mg. And for pregnant and breast-feeding this indicator needs to be increased by 1.5-2 times.
What foods are rich in calcium? First of all, it is a variety of dairy products: kefir, fermented baked milk, sour cream, cottage cheese. .. And the leader among them are solid types of cheeses. And it's not even about the amount of calcium, but in its form. In these products is milk sugar - lactose, which contributes to better assimilation of this chemical element. The amount of calcium depends on the fat content. The smaller this indicator, the more it is in the dairy product.
Rich in calcium and vegetables. This is spinach, broccoli, white cabbage and cauliflower. Of nuts, the most valuable are almonds and Brazilian. The real storehouse of calcium is the seed of poppy and sesame. It is useful to use them both raw and in the form of milk.
Wheat bran and baking from whole wheat flour, soy cheese and milk, parsley leaves, dill, basil and mustard also help increase calcium levels.
How to understand that calcium in the body is not enough for its normal development? External manifestations of this are weakness, irritability, fatigue, dry skin, fragility of the nail plate. With a serious lack of calcium, tooth decay, convulsions, pain and numbness of limbs, a violation of the process of blood coagulability, decreased immunity, tachycardia, the development of cataracts, a tendency to frequent fractures of bones. In such cases, it is necessary to donate blood and, if necessary, start therapy.
So, hardness gives bones their mineral components. First of all, these are salts, which contain calcium, magnesium and phosphorus.