Prevention of heart attack: drugs and doctor's advice
Myocardial infarction is a serious threat to human life. About 50% of patients die before the arrival of medical care, and 30% of survivors die from complications of the disease at the first stage. Earlier it was thought that the infarct was an age-related disease, the majority of patients were over 50 years old. But today this indicator has changed, more and more often the infarct reaches its victims in 30-35 years. Disappointing statistics indicate that the prevention of myocardial infarction becomes more important every year. After all, explaining to a person how to avoid a serious danger is much easier than putting him on his feet after a heart attack.
Ischemic disease is a pathological condition in which the blood supply of the myocardium is completely or partially impaired due to coronary artery disease. A healthy body maintains a balance between the amount of incoming blood and the metabolic needs of the myocardium. With ischemic heart disease, this balance is not observed. The heart muscle loses oxygen, as a result, a person may have a heart attack or angina attacks begin. Infarction is one of the most complex manifestations of coronary heart disease( IHD).Timely prevention of myocardial infarction helps to avoid problems and maintain health and efficiency.
More about heart attack
An infarction is the withering away of a portion of the heart muscle as a result of the cessation of blood supply. The blood flow can be blocked by cholesterol plaques or a thrombus from the blood clots of the artery. The process develops very quickly and is irreversible. Even if the person managed to be saved, it is impossible to restore the site, subject to necrosis, at this point the muscle tissue is gradually replaced by cicatricial. In the future, the scar prevents the full operation of the heart muscle.
The heart muscle( myocardium) is most often affected by a heart attack. But there may be a cerebral infarction, an intestinal or kidney site.
Is the cerebral infarction a stroke?
It is not entirely correct to put an equal sign between these terms. Stroke - is a violation of blood circulation in the brain with a violation of its functions, damage to tissue sites. This disease is also called apoplexy. A cerebral infarction is only one of the subspecies of this process, in addition to necrosis, there may be a cerebral hemorrhage or a subarachnoid space. Stroke has focal or cerebral neurologic symptoms. Even if a person has had time to help, neurological disturbances occur, which can partially or completely lose control of one's body and speech.
Heart attack in men
It is proven that men have more risk factors leading to a heart attack. A strong half of humanity is more aggressive, has a tendency to compete, often scandals and is stressed. In addition, men smoke more and drink alcohol more often, many of them are obese, but continue to have a sedentary lifestyle. Neglect of a healthy lifestyle leads to manifestations of atherosclerosis, angina and arrhythmia. Therefore, the prevention of heart attack in men is of great importance. If a man does not want to take care of his health, then he is likely not to live to the retirement age. Moreover, the symptoms of a heart attack in men are often not expressed. If there was no sudden death, then the development of a heart attack can occur even without loss of consciousness, causing unaccountable anxiety, nausea, vomiting and dull pain behind the sternum.
Infarction in women
At a young age, women are less likely to have an acute infarction. This is due to the peculiarities of the hormonal background in their body. And besides, women often lead a more orderly lifestyle and take their health seriously.
However, after 50 years, statistics change dramatically. After menopause, the likelihood of a heart attack increases dramatically, overcoming even masculinity. Prevention of heart attack for women becomes especially important, as the mortality statistics from this disease are much higher. Early signs of a heart attack are similar to fatigue or influenza infection, which often leads to medical errors. Many patients before the development of acute signs of discomfort in the chest did not feel at all. The most common symptom in women is shortness of breath and difficulty breathing after minor physical activity that does not go away even after rest.
Prevention measures. Medications
Since people with manifestations of hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and high blood pressure( arterial pressure) are most inclined to heart attacks and strokes, doctors often prescribe drug prevention of heart attack. Drugs, for example, prevent the formation of blood clots. The most common appointment after forty is Aspirin. Acetylsalicylic acid, in pharmacies this drug is more often called just that, it is prescribed in a minimal dosage - 100 mg once a day in the afternoon."Aspirin" reduces the ability of blood cells to aggregate( gluing into clots).As a result, microcirculation improves and the risk of thrombosis decreases. But the drug has a number of contraindications, the main of which are the tendency to bleeding, hemophilia, ulcers.
Based on aspirin several drugs have been developed, used as a prophylaxis for infarction. Preparations are issued under the names: "Trombo ACC", "Trombogard 100", "Aspirin cardio", "Cardiomagnum".
An important task is the prevention of heart attacks and strokes on the background of hypertension. In this case, drugs block calcium channels, stimulating vasodilation. Preparations for the prevention of stroke and heart attack in patients with high blood pressure are always selected individually. Dosage is appointed by the attending physician. In appointments often appear "Norvask", "Plandil", "Cardin" and others. In addition, reception of beta-blockers can be prescribed.
Drug prevention of heart attack includes means for lowering cholesterol. For this purpose, statins are prescribed: "Lipitor", "Krestor", "Vitorin" and other medications. The drug "Ovenkor" is very popular among doctors. It allows you to work on the level of cholesterol, prevents atherosclerosis and reduces the size of plaques in the vessels. Treatment with statins always requires a special appointment, because after receiving the expected result the drug will have to be taken in minimal doses constantly.
Primary prevention measures. Hypodinamy - enemy number 1
Prevention of the development of a heart attack is divided into primary and secondary. Primary measures include the treatment of IHD and control of cholesterol. This can also include the normalization of pressure. It is not always possible to achieve the necessary results only by the use of medications. Most often it is necessary to revise the way of life.
The nutrition of the heart muscle is greatly affected by regular physical activity. A sedentary lifestyle not only leads to obesity, but also contributes to the deposition of cholesterol plaques in the vessels. That is why athletic walking, running and swimming doctors recommend to their patients as a means of preventing infarction. Here the regularity of loads is important, and not the sports records.
If you are addicted to atherosclerosis and ischemia, you should not do weightlifting and other power sports. And it should be remembered that any physical activity should be accompanied by rhythmic breathing. It is harmful to delay breathing and exhalation during sports.
Plentiful feasts, overeating, fatty dishes, grilled meat, buns and sweets for many are a daily diet. But the prevention of heart attack in this area is aimed at the transition to a rational diet. The person should receive the necessary amount of proteins, but at the same time avoid fatty foods by choosing dietary meats( chicken breast, turkey, rabbit).In the diet should be a large number of vegetables and fruits. In addition, attention is drawn to the vitamin content of foods. It is desirable to diversify your diet so that you get the maximum amount of microelements and vitamins.
In this case, it is no longer an attractive figure, but the need to reduce body fat. Prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke and other manifestations of ischemic disease includes mandatory weight normalization. The fact is that fatty tissue has many blood vessels, and this increases the load on the heart muscle. Excess weight affects the stability of blood pressure and increases the likelihood of diabetes. All this does not make a person healthier, but, on the contrary, leads to a deterioration in the quality of life.
For weight control, a special index of mass index is recommended. To calculate it, the body weight is divided by the square of the person's height. When you get an index higher than 30, you need a weight correction.
Bad habits of
The rejection of bad habits can be considered one of the main ways of preventing infarction. Smokers do not agree that nicotine provokes heart attacks, they argue that there is no direct evidence for this. However, there is direct evidence that the cigarette provokes narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels, and this increases the risk of heart attack. Therefore, the prevention of heart attack includes quitting smoking.
It's harder with alcohol. Of course, you can call alcoholics healthy people only in an ironic context, but small doses of alcohol have a positive effect on blood vessels. A person who drinks a few sips of dry wine at dinner or dinner, rarely suffers from atherosclerosis. But our mentality often requires "the continuation of the banquet."On several sips of wine it is difficult to stop, and alcohol abuse begins. As a result, a person becomes an alcoholic and dies of liver cirrhosis. Do you want it?
Regular examinations of
At least once a year, every person should undergo a preventive medical check-up. This requirement is a preventive measure for the threat of not only a heart attack, but also many other pathological conditions. Be sure to include in the ECG physical examination, the analysis for cholesterol and the level of glucose in the blood.
For the prevention of heart attack, it is important to learn to control emotions in stressful conditions, avoid depression and adhere to the regime. Ability to calm down in time, as they say, "not to take to heart" problems, not to conceal insults and not to accumulate bitterness is very important for a person who thinks about his health. Excessive experiences lead to spasm of blood vessels, which reduces the flow of blood to the heart muscle. Hence the increased risk of heart attack.
Secondary prophylaxis of
Secondary prevention of heart attack is a set of measures aimed at preventing repeated infarction in a patient. Even if rehabilitation after partial necrosis of the myocardium proceeds successfully, and the person feels completely healthy, from a medical point of view he will not be healthy already. It is with this thought that patients are the hardest to put up with. To prevent a repeated heart attack, a person will have to take a certain set of drugs for the rest of his life. Convince patients of this is very difficult, they begin to violate the prescribed schedule of taking medications and provoke a recurrence of the problem.
Prophylaxis after a heart attack includes all the items mentioned earlier. However, physical exertion will now require additional monitoring by specialists. Most often, physical activity begins with a calm, leisurely walk for 10 minutes. Optimization of the diet is carried out by a nutritionist in conjunction with the treating cardiologist. Diet not only limits fat and fried foods, but also reduces the amount of salt and liquid.
The social rehabilitation of a patient is of great importance for secondary prevention. It is necessary to eliminate the constant anxiety and fear of recurrent myocardial infarction, this can be achieved by the appointment of sedatives. It is important that the patient does not dwell on his problems and does not try to evoke sympathy from relatives and friends. He should strive to restore activity and try to self-service himself.
Gradually, following the recommendations of a doctor, taking prescribed anticoagulants and statins, a person can return to the usual rhythm of life. However, preventive examinations for him should now become a regular addition.
Traditional medicine help
Traditional medicine can not replace taking aspirin or statins, but it can significantly reduce the risk of heart attack. So, to reduce cholesterol use a special alcoholic infusion, which includes:
- half a cup dried radish skin( black);
- half a cup dried horseradish leaves;
- one pod of dried red pepper;
- several handfuls of walnut partitions.
All components are poured with alcohol and infused in the dark for 2 weeks. The composition is used for grinding.
The bark from the bark of the white willow is highly effective. Its effect is similar to "Aspirin", but does not completely replace the administration of this drug.
To reduce cholesterol, you can drink a decoction from the collection of herbs with honey. The collection includes: chamomile, St. John's wort, immortelle, birch buds. Brewed a tablespoon of collection for 0.5 liters of boiling water. The remedy is infused before taking several hours.
To keep healthy blood vessels and the heart is quite possible for everyone. The simple recommendations outlined in the article will help to avoid such a trouble as a repeated infarction. Prevention, treatment is very important for the patient, so do not neglect them. An infarct is not a sentence yet. With the right attitude to your body, you can end up with a rich and lasting life.