Uroflowmetry: what is it, the rules for preparing and conducting
Uroflowmetry - what is it? This is an ordinary manipulation, in which the parameters of the jet of urination are determined. It is carried out in order to find out the condition, and to check the functioning of the lower urinary tract.
In completely healthy people, the outflow of urine with urination starts slowly, but then the rate of flow increases, and then again is inhibited until the bladder is completely released. What do you mean, if you were prescribed uroflowmetry? The price for this type of study is on average 1,100 rubles.
How does the urinary system work?
The nutrients that a person receives by eating food are converted into energy by the body. After mastering all the necessary components, the decay products are output.
Some chemical elements remain in the urinary system, for example, sodium, potassium. Creatine and urea are removed, which are formed as a result of the decomposition of proteins present in meat and individual vegetables.
What does the urinary system consist of?
- Kidneys are paired organs that lie below the ribs on both sides of the spinal column. They remove slags from the body, which are removed along with the urine, in addition, maintain a balance of salts and other substances. The kidneys produce erythropoietin, which participates in the creation of red blood cells. In addition, they are involved in the regulation of blood pressure.
- Two ureters - narrow tubes, through which urine comes from the kidneys to the bladder.
- The bladder is a hollow organ of a triangular shape that is located in the abdominal cavity, occupying its lower part.
- Bladder nerves signal that it is necessary to release it.
- Two sphincters prevent the outflow of urine and consist of circular muscles.
- The urethra is a tube that removes urine from the body.
Preparation for uroflowmetry
Delayed urination may be due to diseases, for example, stricture of the urethra, which is the reason for uroflowmetry. Preparation for the procedure is as follows:
- the doctor may ask you to drink about four cups of liquid a couple of hours before the procedure;
- , women need to tell the doctor about a planned or actual pregnancy;
- should inform the doctor about all medications the patient is taking, including herbal remedies and vitamin complexes;
- for the state of health of the patient sometimes designate other individual training, and another procedure can be appointed.
Indications for examination
Uroflowmetry - what is it? This is a quick enough and simple test of diagnosis, through which you get data on the state of the lower urinary tract. It is used to determine if there is an obstacle that interferes with the normal outflow of urine.
Depending on the results of this procedure, the doctor may prescribe additional studies, for example, retrograde cystography, cystometry, cystoscopy. Urologic diseases, in which the urine output is disturbed:
- malignant tumor of the prostate;
- urinary incontinence;
- benign prostatic hyperplasia;
- the suspension of urine, for example, when throwing it into the kidneys;
- neurogenic bladder dysfunction;
- bladder tumor;
- urinary tract infection.
Complications with uroflowmetry
This is a safe procedure, however complications can be caused by the patient's state of health, so it is necessary to discuss with the doctor all the points associated with this manipulation. Factors that lead to the wrong uroflogram:
- during the urination, movements occurred or the patient's tension was observed;
- some medications.
How is uroflowmetry performed?
The procedure can be performed on an outpatient basis or while the patient is in the hospital.
The manipulation is done as follows:
- First, the doctor explains how to use the uroflow meter.
- Once the subject is ready to urinate, he needs to press the "Start" button and make a five-second urinary retention.
- The patient then pisses into the funnel connected to the uroflow meter. The device records the process and outputs the result in a graphical form.
- During urination, you do not need to press on the urethra, strain the muscles of the perineum, the abdominal press and, if possible, do not perform excess body movements.
- Once the patient has finished writing, it is necessary to stand for five seconds and press the uroflow meter button.
- For medical reasons, a doctor may advise you to repeat the procedure a few more times.
Uroflowmetry - what is it? What do her results report?
The following parameters can be determined using this procedure:
- The highest rate of urine is the limit volume that is allocated for a certain period. The speed is measured in ml / s. If this parameter is lower than the normative data, this does not necessarily indicate a difficulty in the outflow of urine, since it depends on the amount of urine allocated, the sex and age of the patient and the likely decrease in detrusor tone. If the value is higher than normal, then this indicates an excessive increase in the activity of the muscle of the bladder or a small resistance to the canal.
- Duration of urination. This is the time from the beginning to the bottom of the outflow of urine. It is necessary to distinguish between the concepts of "duration of urination" and "duration of urination".These two parameters do not coincide with a discontinuous jet. The duration of the outflow of urine is affected by: the permeability of the vesicourethral region, as well as the urethra itself, and the functional state of the smooth muscle fibers of the walls of the bladder.
- The average rate of urination is the ratio of the volume of the urethra in milliliters to the duration of urination in seconds. Measuring the speed of urination helps to simplify the interpretation of data when urination is intermittent.
- Time to reach the maximum. Period from the beginning to the maximum rate of urination. As a rule, this value is not more than one-third the length of the uroflowgram. If the value is higher, this indicates that detrusor is weakened, and there may also be problems with the passage of the urinary canal and the vesicoureteral section.
- The volume of urination, which is expressed in milliliters. The correctness of the results of the procedure depends on this parameter. In order to get correct results, this indicator should be above 50 ml.
- Waiting period before the beginning of urination. In healthy people, this figure should not exceed 30-40 seconds, and with such diseases as, for example, lesion of smooth fibers of the walls of the bladder - much longer. With podbuzyrnoy blockage of the urinary tract, this indicator increases to several minutes.
Disorders of urination
Correctly working system of urination is an integral part of the normal state of the human body. The appearance of unpleasant sensations during urination, an increase or decrease in the volume of urine can talk about a number of diseases of the genitourinary system, as well as other body systems. In case of occurrence of similar problems it is necessary to address to the doctor. Types of urination disorders in men:
- change in the number of urination during the day;
- painful sensations;
- urinary incontinence;
- change in the amount of urine;
- obstruction of the urinary tract;
- change in color of urine.
Difficulty during urinary outflow, rare urination, genitourinary diseases and sexual infections are the most common disorders in men.
Causes of difficulty urinating in women:
- good and malignant neoplasms;
- infectious-inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system;
- diseases of the nervous system;
Problems can also arise from taking medications that have diuretic properties or contribute to the delay in discharge. Common Urological Diseases:
- Ulcer of the bladder;
Useful information about the urinary system
For 24 hours a person releases about 750-2000 ml of urine, depending on the amount of liquid drunk. The volume of urine, which is produced at night, is approximately half the daytime. In the excreted urine there are slags and salts, there are no viruses, bacteria and fungi.
Uroflowmetry - what is it? This is a diagnostic procedure that can be used in a survey of the general population. Used to measure the characteristics of a urine stream. The accuracy of this procedure is greatly influenced by the psychological factor. For the accuracy of the results, experts advise to go through this study at least two times.
Uroflowmetry is included in most of the protocols for the diagnosis of lower urinary tract diseases in both adults and children. Violations that occur when urinating, you must immediately treat, because the disease can go to the neglected stage. In this case, the disease is treated long and hard. Therefore, if you find the initial signs of violations should contact a doctor.