What is the name of the test for cancer cells in the body?
Many diseases at the outset occur almost without symptoms. Unpleasant sensations and external manifestations of pathology are observed even when there was a proliferation of malignant formations in the body. Cancer therapy in this case is difficult, this process is very painful and long. If the symptoms are eliminated in the early stages, you can increase the patient's chances of a full recovery. To determine the presence of oncology, an analysis is used for cancer cells in the body.
What are the risk groups?
Some groups experience cancer more likely than others. For example, people with fair skin, in contrast to black skin, are prone to melanoma. There are also a number of external factors that negatively affect the human body and provoke the transformation of cells into cancerous cells.
One of the most well-known causes of cancer is heredity. If the family had cases of stomach cancer, then the children will have a predisposition to this type. The human gene contains information about such pathologies. To determine the probability of the onset of the disease, special tests are used that determine the predisposition to it. They are designed to study the genome.
When is it still necessary to analyze the presence of cancer cells in the body? In a number of occupations the risk of cancer is increased. For example, workers who work in a variety of production areas. If a person is constantly in contact with chemicals and dangerous substances, heavy metals, resins, asbestos, chemical dyes and all kinds of radiation, he is exposed to carcinogenic effects.
Defects in the immune system also cause a decrease in the body's resistance to a number of infections, viruses and bacteria. Cancer can develop because of weak immunity.
Overweight causes not only psychological problems, but also various diseases. Judging by the results of scientific research that was conducted in the US, people with obesity are susceptible to cancer by 45-55%.
In addition, other factors can cause cancer:
- Poor nutrition affects metabolic processes, and as a result of deficiency of vitamins, immunity decreases. Because of this, malignant tumors form in the body.
- Excessive consumption of alcohol and smoking for a long time is also able to gradually affect the body and cause cancer.
- A number of features of physiological development. For example, late menopause or early menstruation significantly increase the risk of genital tumors.
- Viruses and infectious diseases adversely affect immunity and provoke cell transformation. For example, because of infections of the genitourinary system, a male prostate tumor may occur, in HPV-16 it will cause cancer of the uterine neck in women.
Let's now understand when to pass the analysis on cancer cells in the body.
The blood test is performed not only with a planned medical examination. There are such pathological symptoms that should not be ignored in any case. If there are signs of illness or malaise, you should immediately go to a specialist. Only timely therapy will allow to achieve effective results and save a person's life.
A blood test is necessary in the following cases:
- If swelling and densities are found on the female breast. This may be a sign of tumor enlargement. In this case, you need to go to a mammologist and take the necessary tests. You need to do your own palpation on a daily basis and visit a doctor every 2-3 months. Mammary glands require close attention.
- Bloody discharge in feces or in the urine suggests that there are irregularities in the functioning of the urogenital system or gastrointestinal tract. Without fail, you need to contact the district therapist and then donate blood for analysis, you will also need a sample of urine or feces.
In what cases is an analysis required for cancer cells in the body( the names of these studies we will list later in the article):
- Sharp loss of body weight for an unknown reason is always a negative sign, which indicates the malfunctioning of the human body. In this case, a comprehensive analysis of cancer markers is assigned.
- Transformations of color, size, shape of birthmark also signal the need to visit a dermatologist. The therapist can perform a primary examination, but the conclusion should be given only by a specialist with a narrow focus.
- The appearance of swelling or deformation of the genitals, strange secretions, etc. may indicate the appearance of a tumor, as well as the transformation of cells into cancerous cells. The state of health is checked by a urologist or gynecologist. He will tell you what tests to hand over to cancer cells.
- Difficulties with ingestion of water and food appear when the larynx and other organs are affected. After the initial examination, the therapist writes a referral to the gastroenterologist, ENT or another specialist.
- Prolonged dry cough, shortness of breath, rales testifies to defects in the functioning of the respiratory system. One of the most important methods of research here is to become a chest x-ray.
According to the results obtained during the research in the laboratory, concerns about the occurrence of oncology can be either disproved or confirmed. In the first case, an additional diagnosis is necessary, during which the causes that caused the malaise are sought. In the second, other tests for cancer cells in the body are prescribed, and an oncologist is consulted.
It is impossible to establish a cancer by means of a blood test. A general analysis on cancer cells acts as the initial stage of diagnosis and shows the overall health of the patient.
Thanks to biochemistry, it is possible to determine the problem direction, for example, defects in the functioning of the liver. But to make the diagnosis of "cancer" is possible only thanks to MRI, ultrasound and biopsy. Complex expensive studies will be assigned only after blood tests have been taken and results obtained.
What is the most effective?
Often, patients ask which of the tests is most effective. However, there is no good or bad analysis. The laboratory test is done for medical reasons and is a reflection of the parameters indicated by the doctor in the direction.
So, what are the tests for cancer cells?
General and biochemical test
First you need to take a blood sample for a general study. If there is malignant formation, then the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation, that is, ESR, is much higher than its permissible norm.
Analysis of cancer cells in the body is a study of the total number of different types of leukocytes, a leukocyte formula is made. Serious decrease or increase in white blood cells and a high concentration of granular and immature cells indicates the development of pathology. In addition, with malignant neoplasms, hemoglobin levels decrease in patients.
When a general test is performed, the biochemistry of the blood is examined, which can be used to determine the direction in search of the affected organ.
Normally, the amount of protein ranges from 75 to 85 grams per liter. The synthesis of proteins is inhibited due to the tumor process.
Blood test for creatinine and urea is given for suspected inflammation of the kidneys. Normal indicators: from 40 to 90 micromolar per liter and from 3 to 8 millimoles per liter, respectively. If the patient has a malignant tumor, then a serious increase in both indicators or the degree of urea occurs.
In a healthy person, the total cholesterol varies between 3.3 and 3.5 millimoles per liter. If the amount of lipids drops sharply, then one can judge of malignant inflammation of the liver. If the norms of liver tests are exceeded, then there are inflammatory processes in this organ( tumor, hepatitis, etc.).
With lesions of bone tissue or liver, sarcoma, the alkaline phosphatase index becomes more than 270 units of action per liter.
Another name for the analysis on cancer cells, which is carried out in case of suspicion of a named pathology, is a study on oncomarkers. The fact is that because of the influence of cancer, special substances are produced in the body, and they can be detected during laboratory investigations. These substances are specific markers that signal the development of pathology, even if the symptoms are absent.
For example, AFP - to detect liver cancer, CA-125 - to determine the tumor of the ovary, etc. For this analysis, venous blood is needed. Anyone can submit a blood test to cancer cells.
If there is a particular predisposition to tumor growths, you need to know the cancer tests and constantly visit a doctor. Each type of disease requires its frequency of examinations. For example, an endoscopic study to prevent the development of gastric cancer is recommended every three years, and mammary glands should be checked every year. If there is a predisposition, you need to do a survey more often to prevent the disease at an early stage.