What can not be done with frostbite and what should be done?
Knowing what can not be done with frostbite of the limbs, face and other parts of the body, should any person living in a more or less cold region. Since even in a temperate climate winters are characterized by severe frosts, almost all the inhabitants of our country face a certain danger, therefore the rules of behavior must be absorbed from childhood. In school, at the lessons of the OBL( and then in the university program), they are surely told what to do, what is forbidden, they introduce the rules of first aid into the course. Let's try to remember what schoolchildren are taught. What actions should be taken to protect yourself from unnecessary risk in the winter.
What's the trouble?
Before deciding what kind of help should be in case of frostbite, one must first understand what this term is used to mean. Awareness of the danger, the ability to timely carry out preventive measures is the most important condition for maintaining one's health. The prolonged influence of negative temperature
It is customary to distinguish four stages, each with its own rules: what can and can not be done, how to help a person. The fourth provokes a lethal outcome. This is observed if more than 5% of the epidermis is damaged due to low temperatures. In this case, blood circulation is disrupted, poisonous components accumulate in the vessels.
What can not be done with frostbite? Several answers will help clarify the situation, and the first rule is that rapid heating is prohibited. The stronger the defeat, the worse the results will be. Heat provokes the expansion of blood vessels, toxins are more actively absorbed into the circulatory system, all organs and systems are instantly poisoned. Doctors urge: when observing frostbite, by all means, a rapid increase in temperature should be prevented.
You can not!
The list of items that reveal what can not be done with frostbite begins with a ban on the use of tight shoes. This provokes the probability of getting a cold injury of the lower limbs, because the vessels are transmitted. In addition, there is no interlayer of air, allowing to preserve the natural heat of the human body. Sadding not only increases the risk of frostbite, but also leads to significant tissue degradation, if these processes have already begun. If the leg is already frost-bitten, it is absolutely forbidden to wear such shoes until full recovery! However, orthopedists probably will advise and at all to refuse similar products for the sake of own advantage.
The second important item in the list of what can not be done with frostbite is to drink alcoholic beverages. This leads to a decrease in vascular gaps and is an increased risk factor. You can not only drink alcohol, already faced with frostbite, but before going out to frost, as this increases the risk of dangerous processes. Similarly, nicotine, so it is recommended to refrain from smoking( even in the cold).
Mindfulness is the guarantee of health
If a person is forced to stay in a low temperature for a long time, you should regularly check how sensitive: the tip of the nose, ears, fingers. If there is a company, you need to monitor the shade of the people around you. Unhealthy pallor indicates the onset of negative processes.
In order not to face frostbite, before going outside check the dryness of the shoes. In no case can not wear wet clothes - this stimulates the loss of heat and makes the legs more sensitive to frost. If you suffer from increased separation of sweat, you should be especially careful with long-term exposure to cold. Wet skin and frost are permanent travelers frostbite. Knowing this special feature, you need to carefully choose not only shoes, but socks. It is recommended to use special sports - they drain moisture from the body, thereby reducing the risk of negative effects of cold.
Helping, do no harm!
Prolonged exposure to frost leads to a decrease in the activity of blood vessels. In the presence of secondary diseases, these conditions are aggravated. The greatest danger lies in children, the elderly. First aid for frostbite treatment requires careful interaction with the victim. It is common to think that rubbing will help: this approach is absolutely wrong, doctors are banned! If the temperature is lowered, then just do not use it, rubbing the affected areas: wool, ice, alcohol. This only stimulates infection and increases the chance of blood clots. The depth of the damage will be much more significant than in the case if the site is not touched before the arrival of the doctor.
In the list of things that can not be done with frostbite, a prohibition on hot heat, including a local application of heated objects, necessarily appears. This leads to local expansion and negatively affects tissues, stimulating necrosis.
Stereotypes and rules
Surprisingly, the scientific prohibitions on what can not be done with frostbite, and folk recipes telling what to do can and should be, indicate the same actions. Traditional medicine recommends rubbing with cream, oil the affected area of the skin, but doctors strictly recommend avoiding it. It is impossible to process the epidermis, which is already fragile and damaged, as this will only lead to an even greater injury, necrosis. In addition, after such a procedure, pain and burning will be disturbed for a long time.
Another important rule concerns heat. Assisting with frostbite is made taking into account the possibility of forming in the circulatory system dangerous for health clots. If there is a sharp heating, this leads to an expansion of the blood vessels, and the thrombus can freely migrate within the human body. This is very dangerous and even a risk of death if a vital artery or vein is blocked. To prevent such an outcome, you need to slowly warm up: you can not sit by the battery or a fire, use warmed-up hot water bottles.
Accuracy - a pledge of health
Some people think that good help for cold and frostbite are compresses, which contain warming ointments that irritate. Doctors pay attention: the opinion is categorically mistaken, the use of such compounds provokes a thermal burn. Do not use solutions on alcohol in the damaged area of the dermis, as this leads to a narrowing of the blood vessels in this area.
Water: treats and maims
Others believe that hot water can help with frostbite. Clinical trials have shown that such "help" leads to a large-scale death of organic tissues and increases the likelihood of formation of thrombi in the veins. Especially dangerous is the described method for people of advanced age.
The effect of hot liquids provokes the activation of local blood supply, with the blood flow to the periphery directed to this area, but the tissues around begin to suffer from oxygen deficiency. It also stimulates necrotic processes, and the first pre-hospital frost-bite help, if done incorrectly, can lead to even more damage than the lack of assistance at all. It must be remembered that necrotic processes are accompanied by active multiplication of pathogenic microflora. To prevent further infection, as soon as possible, apply an aseptic gauze bandage bandage.
Helping, do no harm
It is believed that with frostbite will help massage. This is a delusion: in no case can it be done, especially if the situation is heavy. But at the first degree and small hearth in rare cases such a measure can bring help, but only if the doctor has already looked at the lesion and recommended him to massage, and also explained how to do it correctly. Self-resort to this method is not recommended.
It should be remembered: all the wrong actions of a person can significantly exacerbate the situation, not only in terms of short-term discomfort, but also a significant risk to life and increase the duration of recovery processes.
What can I do?
And it's impossible, and it's forbidden. What can I do? !Everything is not as difficult as it might seem at first glance. First aid to the victim is slow warming. The best option is to be in a warm room. It will not be superfluous to have a cup of warm sweet tea, but not too hot.
Next, make a compress or a bath, gradually heating the damaged area. First, the water must be heated to 25 degrees, then gradually the temperature rises to 40. The limbs must be immersed in a liquid a couple of centimeters above the upper boundary of the damaged part. After that, the site is treated with a warm gauze multilayered compress using cotton wool, the top is covered with oilcloth.
This is important! If any part of the skin turns black, you need to urgently turn to traumatology. If this is not possible, you should take the patient to the doctor in a timely manner, you need to call an ambulance. One can not hesitate.
Frostbite: how to notice the beginning of the process?
Initially, hypothermia manifests itself as a slight pain in the affected area, tingling. This is the first sign that people pay attention to. Having noticed it, it is necessary to take the first measures to prevent the deterioration of the situation, first - to move into heat.
Frost affects a person, leading to a decrease in overall body temperature. If the indicator decreases to 33 degrees, there are changes in the work of the heart( you can see them if you immediately make an electrocardiogram).To determine the depth of the lesion, it is necessary to apply special clinical techniques. However, in the primary phase, there is usually no profound change, the symptomatology is very poorly expressed. As a rule, it is for this reason that people do not attach much importance to it, they stay in the cold for a longer time, which already leads to serious damage and tissue degradation.
This condition is characterized by the absence of pain and in general the sensitivity of the affected area. Manifestations in each case will be individual, much depends on the personal pain threshold. If the situation reaches the third or fourth stage, the patient loses consciousness, starts rarely, does not breathe deeply.
You should not wait for the development of the situation to such an extent, measures need to be understood as soon as cyanosis is noted, accompanied by the painfulness of the area. Remember: preventing frostbite is much easier than curing its consequences. And unpleasant impressions associated with therapy are unlikely to be a source of positive emotions.