ECHO head: where to do what shows? How do ECHO heads?
To many of its patients, a neurologist appoints an ECHO of the head. It is deciphered as an echoencephalography and is a non-invasive procedure, during which the brain is examined and the sensitivity of its various sites to ultrasound is determined. Many patients ask the question: "If the doctor recommends an ECHO of the head, what does this examination show?".In this way, brain pathologies are identified that can threaten life: hemorrhages, tumors, abscesses, trauma. Let us consider this procedure in more detail.
What is echoencephalography?
ECHO of the head is a safe and quite informative method of brain examination using ultrasound in both adults and children. Such waves, having a frequency of 0.5-15 MH ts / s, easily pass through various tissues of the body and are reflected from any surfaces near the boundaries of tissues with different composition( brain substance, skull bones, blood, liquor, soft head tissues).
As a result of such research, reflective surfaces are quite capable of appearing and pathological( various hematomas and abscesses, foreign bodies, crush sites, cysts).With the help of echoencephalography, the arteries and veins of the patient are also examined and the patency of cerebral vessels is checked. This procedure easily reveals a violation of blood flow, which can lead in the future to serious diseases.
In what cases is echoencephalography administered to adults?
This adult procedure is prescribed to detect lesions in the following pathologies:
- head trauma;
- intracranial hematoma;
- intracranial hypertension;
- other diseases that are cerebral.
In addition, an echo examination of the head is prescribed for the diagnosis of some other diseases. These are:
- neck injuries;
- blood flow disorder;
- vertebrobasilar insufficiency;
- is an ischemia of the brain;
- bruises and concussion;
When is echoencephalography prescribed for children?
In children under the age of 1.5 years, the fontanel is not overgrown, so with this procedure it is possible to completely examine all areas of the brain.
ECHO of the baby's head is prescribed in the following cases:
- to assess the degree of hydrocephalus;
- if sleep is severely disturbed;
- for the evaluation of the effectiveness of therapy for neurological diseases;
- if nerve ticks are piercing;
- with a delay in physical development;
- if muscle hypertension is detected;
- with stuttering and enuresis;
- in case of a head injury.
Preparation for echoencephalography
No training is required to make ECHO of the head in adults and children. You can take any food and liquid. You can do this at any age, as well as during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. Only if there is an open wound on the head in those places where the sensor will be applied, it is best to apply another kind of research - computer or MR tomography.
If brain echoencephalography is administered to a small child, parents should come to the rescue, who should keep his head in one position for some time.
Although this method is absolutely painless, but during the procedure, it is necessary to change the scan plane many times, and the head should not move at all. Sedation and anesthesia during the procedure are not required.
How is the research conducted?
How do ECHO heads? For this, the patient should be in a supine position, but in some cases the procedure is carried out and sitting. Begin examination with the right lateral, and then the left side of the head, from the forehead to the occipital region. This method of research is often used as an emergency diagnosis, so the size of the devices is small, they are easy to transfer.
One-dimensional echoencephalography can be carried out in the doctor's office, in the ambulance, on the street and at home, if the device is equipped with a battery. The study lasts 10-15 minutes and it is carried out in two modes.
The first mode is the transmission mode. With this method, two ultrasound sensors are used that are mounted on the same axis simultaneously from the two sides of the head. One probe in this case sends a signal, and the other receives it. Thus, the "average head line" is calculated. Usually, it coincides with the anatomical middle line, but this dependence disappears with soft tissue injuries, as well as in the case of blood accumulation in the cranial cavity or under the periosteum.
The second mode is emission. In this case, only one sensor is used, installed at such points where ultrasound is easier to penetrate through the bones of the skull. This device is slightly offset to make the image more informative.
Two-dimensional echoencephalography is obtained as a result of a gradual movement of the sensor over the surface of the head. At the same time, an image of the horizontal section of the brain, obtained by moving such a device, appears on the monitor. In the case of small foci of pathology, such a study is not accurate enough. In this case, it is best to carry out magnetic resonance imaging.
Decoding of results
The results of ECHO of the head are treated equally in children and adults. To decipher the record of a specialist sonologist, one should know some theoretical questions.
So, in norm, echoencephalography consists of three signals, or "bursts", called complexes.
The initial complex is the signal closest to the sensor. Its formation is carried out by ultrasound, which is reflected from the bones of the skull, skin with subcutaneous tissue and surface structures of the brain.
The median complex( M-echo) is a signal obtained as a result of a "collision" of ultrasound with such structures of the brain located in the middle between the hemispheres.
The final complex is a signal coming from the soft tissues of the head, bones of the skull, a solid shell of the brain from the opposite side of the sensor.
Echoencephalography is a combination of these three main signals, which on a monitor or paper looks like a graph with the abscissa and ordinate axis.
The decoding of the head ECH begins with the evaluation of the following indicators:
- M-echo. Such a signal usually occupies a middle position between the two complexes. It is permissible if it moves by 1-2 mm. Many scientific studies prove that if there are neurological symptoms, then a displacement of more than 0.6 mm should alert, and a person needs to undergo an additional examination.
- The signal from the third ventricle should not be split or dilated, since in this case it indicates increased intracranial pressure.
- The pulsation of the M-echo should be within 10-30%.If it is increased to 50-70%, then this indicates a hypertensive-hydrocephalic syndrome.
- There must be an equal number of smaller signals between the M-echo and the initial complex, on the one hand, and the M-echo and the final signal, on the other.
- The average syllabic index( SI) in adults should be 3.9-4.1 and more. If it falls below the figure of 3.8, then this indicates the existence of increased intracranial pressure.
Other indicators of
In addition, the echoencephalography consists of the following indicators:
- The index of the third ventricle is 22-24.Less than 22 is a sign of hydrocephalus.
- The medial wall index is 4-5.If the indicator is greater than 5, this indicates an increased pressure in the supprentorial space.
- If the M-echo is displaced by 5 mm or more with the stroke clinic in the early days, this indicates that it is hemorrhagic in nature. If the dislocation is absent or does not exceed 2.5 mm, then the stroke is ischemic.
- With a large M-echo displacement after a prolonged course of the disease, if there are no signs of inflammation, a tumor is often detected. Increased temperature, intoxication of the body, a sharp development of the disease and a large displacement of the M-echo indicate an abscess of the brain.
Since such a study has inaccuracies, the interpretation of the results should be carried out by a neurologist. Treatment is prescribed only if the doctor compares the echo-picture with the symptoms of a person.
Features of the echoencephalography
Any medical study by different instruments and its interpretation of results depends on the human factor. Every highly professional specialist has a certain experience, due to which he can judge the received data in his own way and there are such moments that the opinion of the ultrasound doctor does not coincide with the opinion of the neurologist. Therefore, a person after an echoencephalography should be examined by a highly professional specialist and based on such an examination, as well as by the results of ultrasound of the brain, treatment is prescribed.
ECHO head: where to do?
There are so many options where you can undergo a brain examination. Ideally, first of all, you need to coordinate the place of the procedure and the doctors - your treating neurologist and specialist, who will perform the diagnosis. In some cases, echoencephalography is carried out directly by the treating neurologist, so you do not have to go anywhere, since everything is done in one place.
Thus, we found out what the head ECHO is. Echoencephalography is performed to identify various pathological conditions of the brain. This procedure can be applied to both adults and children, and is quite safe and informative. Due to such an investigation, an accurate diagnosis is made and the localization of many pathological formations is determined. The procedure itself is relatively inexpensive, in addition, it takes a little time.