The main signs of newborn donation: a description and features
Today, we list and briefly characterize the signs of fullness of the newborn. In addition, we will dwell on issues of postponement or prematurity. How is it possible to determine by the child and how are the children different? What threatens this newborn?
For this reason, it is necessary to know not only signs of fullness and maturity of the newborn, but also be able to correctly diagnose, and be aware of possible problems. If we treat the child as an object of childbirth, then this must be done based on the size of the head, since this is the most voluminous part of the fetal body that experiences the greatest difficulties during movement through the birth canal. Now we propose to discuss in more detail the signs of neonatal freshness.
What is the maturity of the fetus? This is a certain state of the child, which characterizes the readiness of internal organs to ensure the life of the baby outside the womb of the mother. After the birth of the child must necessarily inspect the neonatologist.
The doctor needs to evaluate three parameters:
- definition of the fullness of a newborn child, the signs of which we will consider in this section;
- assess the degree of physical development;
- morphological and functional maturity.
Which child is considered full? To such signs carry:
- a term of a birth - from thirty eight to forty two weeks;
- body weight should be more than two and a half kilograms;
- body length - from forty-six centimeters and more.
It is very important to note that there are a number of other signs of fullness of the newborn. It's about morphological and functional maturity. We will discuss this in more detail later. Summarizing all that has been said in this section, it is possible to distinguish the main signs of the newborn's fullness:
- gestational age;
- body weight;
- body length.
Exterior features of
Let's start with the main features that are visible to the naked eye. The first item on this list is a loud and demanding voice. Second - the skin of a newborn baby should be pink and velvety. Be sure to pay attention to the fact that the skin of the newborn should be clean, and the fat layer - uniform. Third - the presence of an open large fontanel. However, according to statistics, in fifteen percent of cases, a small one is also open. The fourth external sign is the formation of the auricle, all arches must be clearly expressed. The fifth sign - the navel is located in the center of the abdomen, the nail plates should completely cover the nail phalanx. The sixth sign is that the girls have a closed sexual fissure, and boys have testicles lowered into the scrotum.
Functional features of
In this section, we list the functional signs of neonatal freshness. To such it is possible to carry the following:
- the extremities of the kid should be bent in joints;
- movements are chaotic and quite active;
- for children characterized by increased muscle tone;
- body temperature is stable, deviations within normal limits are possible up to six tenths of degrees Celsius;
- the breathing of the newborn is also stable - from forty to sixty breaths per minute;
- heartbeat is audible well, rhythmic( the norm is from one hundred twenty to one hundred and forty beats per minute);
- in a full-term baby all the reflexes are symmetrical, there is the possibility to cause specific ones.
Specific reflexes of newborns:
- proboscis and others.
Now we turn to the question of criteria for prematurity, the toddler. A premature baby is born before the end of the intrauterine development, that is, until the thirty-seventh week of pregnancy. Such babies have a small body weight, weight less than two and a half kilograms, and their growth does not reach forty five centimeters. In newborns, there are problems with thermoregulation and a lack of response to external stimuli. It is also important to note statistical information: such babies are born in about 10% of cases.
Be aware that there is the term "extreme prematurity" if the baby is born at the time of up to twenty-two weeks. This condition is the line between miscarriage and premature baby. Body weight in this case is the decisive factor: if it reaches half a kilogram, then this premature baby, and only one gram less - miscarriage.
Prematurity is classified by body weight of the newborn.
Mass of body( kilograms)
From 2 to 2.5
From 1.5 to 2
From 1 to 1.5
Less than 1
Prematurity problems can be concluded in either Mom or Dad, and in the child. They are briefly listed in the table below.
Diseases of the kidneys, cardiovascular system, infectious, gestosis, trauma, smoking, alcohol or drug use, Rh rhesus-conflict, young age giving birth or vice versa
Chronic diseases or advanced age
Genetic disorders,erythroblastosis, intrauterine infections
Early manifestation of
The symptoms of prematureness, prematurity and postponement of a newborn in the article are reflected in the behavior and development of the baby. We suggest you talk about how prematurity of newborns is manifested. Now we will give a general clinical picture. First, the newborn has a disproportion of the body( a very large head).In addition, the seams of the skull are open, so the bones are supple. Secondly, the ears are soft. Third - the child is in a frog posture, as there is a hypotension of the muscles. The fourth sign is that the testicles of the boys have not yet descended into the scrotum, and the large labia of the girls have not yet developed to the end. Fifth, specific reflexes are extremely poorly expressed. Sixth - superficial and weak breathing( up to 54), low blood pressure( approximately 55-65).Seventh - frequent urination and regurgitation.
What features does the newborn baby carry? Symptoms of overtaxation in a mother should be diagnosed by a doctor using CTG and ultrasound. These symptoms include:
- lack of labor;
- abdominal circumference;
- is a fairly large fruit;
- child skull seal;
- meconium in the amniotic fluid;
- reduced concentration of glucose in the amniotic fluid;The
- urine test shows an underestimated level of estriol.
It is worth noting that two types of pregnant pregnancy are distinguished:
Regression of the placenta, complete maturation of the child and lack of labor
Absence of signs of overripe in the child and changes in the placenta. Sometimes a kid just needs a little more time to fully mature
. With true transferability, the child is in serious danger, as hypoxia develops.
What are the causes of transference and how do they affect the baby?
How does a pregnant pregnancy affect a child? The kid has the following symptoms:
- is a lean body;
- dry and wrinkled skin;
- peeling on the skin;
- no fatter grease;
- long nails and hair;
- open eyes;
- increased activity.
Please note that the skin of the newly born babies acquires a yellowish tinge. To prevent a delayed pregnancy, it is very important to undergo KTG procedure three times a week( after 40 weeks).Palpitation and movements of the baby will help to determine exactly how the child feels.
The causes of this phenomenon are unknown, but the doctors distinguish two large groups:
Changes in the body of the mother
Changes in the baby's body
This can be chronic diseases of the reproductive system, kidney problems, serious emotional upheavals. Even age matters. The later the woman became pregnant with the first child, the more likely it is to face the
repetition. Deviations in the development of the
. Note that there is a psychological factor. If the future mother is afraid of childbirth and is not psychologically ready for them, then the pregnancy can be prolonged. In this case, you need the support of close people or counseling psychologist.
Distinction of a full-term and premature baby
A preterm child has a number of characteristics. He is ready for life outside the womb, has certain reflexes, the skin is able to maintain a certain temperature regime, the heart rate is stable, normal breathing and activity. A premature baby is the exact opposite: it is not ready for life outside the womb, it can not maintain the temperature regime, the heart rate and respiration rate are unstable, low blood pressure, and the reflexes of the newborns are poorly developed.