Prevention and treatment of purulent conjunctivitis
Ophthalmologists know that this serious disease is quite widespread among adult patients and children. Treatment of purulent conjunctivitis should be handled by an experienced specialist, so self-medication, advice of "knowledgeable" neighbors and girlfriends in this case are unacceptable. The disease can be of several varieties, and therefore the effectiveness of treatment directly depends on the correct diagnosis.
Purulent conjunctivitis is a lesion of the mucous eye that causes pathogenic bacteria. The main symptom of this disease is the discharge from the affected eyes of exudate( purulent contents).In addition, the patient, as a rule, feels a strong burning and irritation of the eyeball. It should be said that with timely access to a specialist, treatment is performed fairly quickly and efficiently, but on condition that the patient will strictly follow the doctor's recommendations.
Causes of the disease
Germs caught on the mucous eyes are the main cause of the development of the disease. It often develops when the eyes rub with hands, when they get on the mucous cola, which were previously infected with bacteria. More often the infection affects both eyes simultaneously, but it happens that the difference in the time of manifestation of clinical signs can be 2-3 days.
As a rule, the treatment of purulent eye conjunctivitis in adults( and children) depends on what the ailment is caused by:
- gram-negative rods - proteus, klebsiella, diphtheria, pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli;
- cocci flora - streptococcus, staphylococcus, gonococcus.
Development and treatment of purulent conjunctivitis in adults can be complicated by the presence of increased activity in the body of chlamydia, as well as pathogens of gonorrhea. In this case, it is sufficient not only to contact the infected person, but also to use his hygiene items, on which the pathogenic microflora is preserved.
Symptoms of the disease can manifest in two to three days after the transited angina, which causes streptococcus, scarlet fever and other infectious diseases. As a rule, infection occurs by contact from an infected person or animal. Unfortunately, the infection and pets are borne.
A greater( and in some cases decisive) role in the development of the disease plays a lowered immunity. If there is a violation of sanitary norms, an infection may develop in the hospital, which is quite resistant to most antiseptics.
We can not say about the existence of allergic purulent conjunctivitis of the eyes. Treatment of it has its own peculiarities, which is associated with several different manifestations of the disease. Usually this is a strong irritation of the eyeballs and eyelids, which is manifested by their reddening, itching. Purulent discharge is either absent or in small quantities. Home dust, pollen of plants, food, animal hair, chemical irritants - all this can provoke the development of purulent conjunctivitis. Treatment in this case is primarily aimed at limiting the contact of the patient with the allergen. In addition, the use of antihistamines and anti-allergic drops( "Olopatadine", "Kromogeksal", "Dexamethasone", "Allergoodil") is recommended.
Depending on the microorganism that caused the disease, purulent conjunctivitis is divided into:
- streptococcal or staphylococcal;
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
This is a fairly rare form of the disease. It develops in a newborn on the second day after birth. The cause of the disease is the infection of the mother with gonorrhea. This form is rare, because pregnant women are usually examined and treated long before delivery. It usually occurs in asocial families, where a woman does not register in a women's consultation, is not observed during the fetal gestation.
The danger of this type of disease is the defeat of the cornea. The absence of treatment of purulent conjunctivitis in newborns and adults can lead to complete blindness. After the treatment on the conjunctiva, scars remain.
Staphylococcal( streptococcal) conjunctivitis
Infection occurs when you contact an infected person during a handshake, using general personal hygiene. The disease develops rapidly. Its acute period lasts approximately 12 days. In the absence of competent treatment, the illness turns into a chronic form: the exudate becomes serous and quite scarce. Several symptoms are erased, it is more difficult to treat.
This disease can develop as a result of microtraumas, if contact lenses are misused, it also causes dust in the eyes. More often this disease develops on one eye, rarely capturing the second eye. This type of disease is characterized by a rapid development of clinical signs. First, there are lacrimation, photophobia. After a day or two, purulent discharge appears. This leads to the formation of erosions of the cornea( superficial) through which the infection rushes inwards. The disease can be complicated by keratitis - inflammation of the cornea. Scars are formed on the site of ulcers and erosions, which subsequently reduce visual acuity.
Symptoms of purulent conjunctivitis
The main signs of the disease include:
- edema of the eyelids;
- itching, burning, sensation of foreign body;
- congestion and eyelid congestion;
- mucopurulent, yellowish discharge that glues the eyelashes and may obstruct the opening of the eyes;
- weakness, fever( especially often in children), malaise.
Depending on the type of microorganism that caused the disease, the severity of symptoms depends. In some cases, not all of the symptoms manifest themselves, but only some of them. For example, exudate may not appear at all or stand out in huge quantities: a person in the morning can not open his eyes until he removes purulent discharge using medication. Most often the disease affects both eyes with a time difference of several hours to two days.
Which specialist should I consult for signs of the disease?
Treatment of purulent eye conjunctivitis in children and adults is conducted by an ophthalmologist. If, for some reason, there is no such specialist in your clinic, adult patients should consult a therapist and show the child to the pediatrician.
An accurate diagnosis can only be made by a physician based on a visual examination, identifying the main symptoms of the disease. To identify the pathogen and determine its sensitivity to antibiotics, additional laboratory studies of the secretions from the eyes will be required.
Purulent conjunctivitis: treatment of
We have already said, but we will repeat once again that treatment of the disease must be started immediately after diagnosis, so that it does not become chronic and irreversible complications. As a rule, for the treatment of purulent conjunctivitis experienced ophthalmologist selects local treatment. Only with severe, neglected forms of infection with complications in the form of keratitis is prescribed therapy with antibiotics.
Several times a day, the eyes are washed with antibacterial solutions( "Rivanol", "Levomycetin"), antiseptics( pale pink solution of potassium permanganate).In the treatment of purulent conjunctivitis in children and adults during the day, it is necessary to instill antibacterial drops( Ciprolet, Tobrex, Tsipromed, Okomistin, Floksal).
In complex treatment, folk remedies can be used( in agreement with the attending physician), namely washing the eyes with decoctions of medicinal herbs: sage, chamomile, St. John's wort, yarrow, coltsfoot, freshly brewed tea. For eyelids before bed, ophthalmic ointments are laid on the basis of antibiotics( "Erythromycin", "Floxal", "Tetracycline").The duration of treatment of purulent eye conjunctivitis in adults and children is determined by the doctor. With self-abolition of therapy, it is quite possible to relapse of the disease, the appearance of complications.
Treatment regimen( for adults)
Treatment of purulent conjunctivitis should be phased. Immediately after sleep, the eyes are washed from purulent crusts. To do this, moisten the cotton ball or disc with a weak solution of manganese and wipe eyelids and eyelashes. Then, using a syringe without a needle, the conjunctival sacs are washed out. This must be done in the morning, but if necessary, repeat this procedure several times during the day.
Treatment continues with antibacterial eye drops. The doctor selects them taking into account the sensitivity to their composition of the microflora that caused the disease. The therapeutic effect will be achieved if one drop drops into each eye, since only a drop is contained in the conjunctival sac of an adult and a child. The rest of the medicine will flow out. During the exacerbation of the disease, the eyes are buried every hour. This will achieve maximum therapeutic effect. The fact that abundant lacrimation dries medicinal substance from the eye, not allowing him to act on the infection. Do not be afraid of an overdose of drugs. Eye drops, as a rule, have an exclusively local effect.
With increased purulent discharge, the eyes are washed again. At night, ointment with an antibiotic is pawned over the eyelids. When acute manifestations of the disease are reduced, the number of instillations is reduced to 6 times a day. Treatment continues until the symptoms disappear completely and 3-5 more days. This is necessary to prevent the transition of the disease from acute to chronic.
Conjunctivitis in children
Unfortunately, this disease is much more common in children than in adults. This is often said in his programs by the famous pediatrician EO Komarovsky. Treatment of purulent conjunctivitis in children, in his opinion, rejects any self-treatment, especially if the disease is detected in a newborn or child up to a year.
The baby should be urgently shown to the doctor if the treatment does not improve the baby's eyes for two days. In addition, it is necessary to call a doctor at home with photophobia, even if( according to parents) reddening of the eyeball seems insignificant. With this symptom, the child blinks, frowns from the bright light, can rub eyes. If the child is worried about reduced vision, cutting pain in the eyes, it is necessary to urgently call a doctor, Komarovsky believes. Urgent help will require the appearance of watery bubbles in the upper century.
The causes of this disease in children are the same: getting into the eyes of infections and bacteria. If there are animals in the house, then they can become carriers of the disease, and if adult members of the family that have stronger immunity may not adopt the disease, then the children will develop purulent conjunctivitis within a year several times.
Treatment of a child
A waking up baby in the morning, clean the eyes with a cotton swab dipped in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and each eye requires a separate tampon. Carefully open the eyelid and moisten the same solution, shifting the exudate to the inner corner, conjunctiva. It is easier for some parents to do with a rubber pear or syringe without a needle.
For the treatment of purulent conjunctivitis in children, drops are used necessarily. In each eye, gently sliding the lower eyelid, add a drop of "Levomycetin".Even if only one eye is hit at the moment, the second one must be treated without fail. This procedure is repeated every hour and a half. With a rare instillation( up to five times a day), microbes get used to the antibiotic contained in the drops, which is fraught with the transition of the disease to a chronic form.
If the separation of pus continues, treatment with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate should be repeated 2-3 more times. Before going to bed, the baby is placed in conjunctive pouches ointment "Tetracycline"( as prescribed by the doctor).
To prevent the development of this serious disease, you must strictly follow the rules of hygiene:
- do not use other hygiene products;
- do not rub your eyes;
- wipe them with sterile disposable handkerchiefs;
- correctly use and process contact lenses;
- in bright sun do not give up sunglasses.
Special preventive measures are carried out in maternity hospitals to prevent conjunctivitis in newborns.