Radioisotope method of investigation: indications and contraindications. Radioisotope diagnostics
The radioisotope method of investigation is used very often and plays an important role in the diagnosis of diseases of many organs and systems, helping to determine the extent of the lesion. Basically, it is used to conduct an examination of the genitourinary system and determine the characteristics of its functioning.
The essence of the
method The radioisotope method of investigation is performed when a special contrast medium is introduced into the patient's body, which is then excreted in the urine. When this drug passes through the desired organ, contrast pictures are taken. Any applied contrast agent in its composition contains iodine, it is capable of being absorbed by the tissues of the organs, highlighting them.
It is quite difficult for doctors to distinguish the structure of organs on an ordinary X-ray image, as well as to determine the presence of changes that have arisen as a result of the course of diseases. After the introduction of a contrast agent, the structure of the organs b
Contrast substance is administered intravenously, and on the patient's body are attached sensors that fix radiation in the organs, as well as blood.
Indication for the
study. Radioisotope diagnostics is used for the following purposes:
- detection of acute and chronic diseases;
- assessment of the condition of organs in trauma;
- diagnosis of organ damage resulting from diseases;
- assessment of the condition of the organ after transplantation.
In addition, a similar technique helps to determine the presence of existing outflows of urine, as well as blood circulation.
In which areas of medicine is applied
The radioisotope method of investigation is based on the participation of radionuclides in the physiological processes of the body. Circulating along with lymph and blood, the introduced contrast medium is delayed in certain organs, and their speed and direction are fixed, resulting in a diagnosis.
The radioisotope method of investigation is used in gastroenterology and allows to determine the position, function and size of salivary glands, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract. In addition, you can examine the liver, evaluate its performance, the peculiarity of its circulation, which is especially important:
- for chronic hepatitis;
- malignant neoplasms.
With the help of a contrast medium, you can analyze the condition of the pancreas, stomach with peptic ulcer and chronic gastroenteritis.
In hematology, this method of investigation helps to establish the presence of anemia. In cardiology, the movement of blood through the vessels and cavities of the heart muscle is seen. By the nature of the distribution of contrast media in the healthy and affected areas make an opinion on the course of the disease.
The radioisotope method of studying the kidneys allows to determine the peculiarity of the functioning of this organ, the presence of various diseases, as well as the extent of the lesion. In neurology, this method is used to identify brain tumors, their nature, prevalence and localization.
With the advent of the radioisotope method of research, completely new possibilities for oncology have appeared. By applying this diagnosis, it is possible in the initial stages to identify malignant neoplasms:
- of the intestine;
- of the nervous system;
- of the pancreas.
This makes it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment and determine the relapse. Moreover, it is possible to see signs of bone metastases, which are detected a few months earlier than the X-ray.
Preparation for diagnostics
The Center for Contemporary Medicine conducts a radioisotope study at the highest level using modern means and preparations. It is necessary to visit the doctor in advance and discuss with him all the nuances and features of this procedure. Certain preparation of the patient for radioisotope methods of investigation is required. Renography requires the patient's refusal of alcoholic beverages, as well as the need to adjust the intake of medication.
During the procedure, there should be absolutely no metal objects on the patient's body. The introduction of a contrast agent should be carried out strictly on an empty stomach, since after ingestion, nausea, fever, and sweating may occur. Normally, the contrast is removed within 24 hours.
If there is a need for a radioisotope study during pregnancy and children, they should take potassium iodide several hours before the procedure to reduce the impact of dangerous drugs on the thyroid gland.
Special feature of
In carrying out the procedure at the Center for Contemporary Medicine, for example, initially a contrast agent is introduced into the patient's body. Then it is stacked so that you can get high-quality pictures. Usually, an examination of the back surface of the organ and then the anterior one is performed.
From the very beginning, take pictures at a rate of 1 frame per second, and this happens for 1 minute. After this, the distribution of the drug to organs is assessed. To do this, the sensors are removed at a rate of 1 frame per minute, and so for 20 minutes. The examination continues until the contrast is removed from the urine. If necessary, the bladder is catheterized.
Decoding results of
The maximum concentration of contrast medium is observed about 5 minutes after its introduction, and after 30 minutes its concentration is significantly reduced, approximately 3 times. During this time, it is possible to evaluate the functioning of the organ under investigation, its location and the clarity of the internal structure. The presence of dark spots can speak of a pathological process.
When performing the diagnosis, the resulting images are evaluated in conjunction with the data in the rhenogram.
Have radioisotope methods of examining indications and contraindications, which is why it is necessary to take this into account, as there can be serious problems with the body. This method of investigation is quite unsafe. A person receives a certain dose of radiation, so it can not be used without serious evidence in pregnancy, as well as children. In addition, its use is prohibited for patients with intolerance to iodine or seafood.
Some medicinal products, in particular, means for reducing blood pressure, as well as psychotropic drugs, can distort the results. You can not conduct more than one study per day, since otherwise an overabundance of contrast medium in the blood can distort the results.
For greater safety during diagnostic procedures, the patient should be in an office covered with protective panels. The contrast medium itself should be stored in special cabinets that prevent the spread of radiation.
Carrying out a study in children
For children, this research methodology is prescribed in the presence of kidney failure, when other methods of examination are poorly informative or difficult to perform. With the help of this technique, it is possible to detect the earliest manifestations of the disease.
Children with serious impairment of kidney function immediately noticeable changes, and the rates of abnormalities in blood sharply increase.