Eosinophilia - what is it? Symptoms, causes, treatment
Eosinophilia - what is it? The answer to the medical question you ask is found in the materials of the article. In addition, we will tell you about why this deviation occurs, what are its symptoms and how to treat it.
Eosinophilia - what is it? In medical practice, this term means a special state of blood, in which the patient has an increased level of cells-eosinophils. In addition, with this deviation, impregnation, or so-called infiltration, of other tissues occurs. For example, in the common cold, eosinophils are fairly easily detected in secreted secretions, in bronchial asthma - in sputum, and in tumors of the pleura or in the accumulation of blood in the lungs - in the pulmonary fluid.
Degrees of disease
In an adult, the number of eosinophils in the blood is considered normal from 0.02 x 109 / L to 0.3 x 109 / L.If this number is exceeded, the patient is diagnosed with "eosinophilia".What is it, we found out. Now let's imagine what degrees of this deviation distinguish:
- High degree - more than 20%.
- Moderate degree - from 10 to 20%.
- A small degree, that is up to 10% of the total number of leukocytes.
Persistent eosinophilia is a sign of helminthic lesions, some leukemias, and allergic reactions.
Disease or symptom?
Eosinophilia, the treatment of which we will consider below, is not an independent disease, but merely a sign of autoimmune, infectious, allergic and other abnormalities.
So, let's work out together why a person has such a pathological condition.
Eosinophilia: causes of
This deviation is manifested against the backdrop of the development of many diseases. This long list includes:
- Parasitic diseases( paragonymosis, ascariasis, strongyloidosis, schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, trichinosis, filariasis, fascioliasis, malaria, hookworm disease, toxocarosis, echinococcosis, Weingarten syndrome, diphyllobothriasis).
- Skin diseases( eczema, pemphigus, cutaneous dermatitis, pemphigus, dermatitis herpetiformis).
- Allergic diseases( bronchial asthma, Quincke's edema, hay fever, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, serum sickness, pollinosis, eosinophilic myositis and fasciitis, eosinophilic cystitis).
- Diseases of the blood( Cesari syndrome, lymphogranulomatosis, true polycythemia, pernicious anemia, leukemia, familial histiocytosis with combined immunodeficiency and eosinophilia).
- Lung diseases( pulmonary infiltrate, allergic aspergillosis, eosinophilic pneumonia, Leffler's syndrome, sarcoidosis).
- Autoimmune diseases( scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus).
- Diseases of the intestine and stomach( staphylococcal infection in children, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, allergic gastroenteropathy).
- Rheumatic diseases( periarteritis nodosa, rheumatoid arthritis, Wegener's granulomatosis, fasciitis eosinophilic).
- Malignant neoplasms( carcinomatosis, adenocarcinoma of the stomach and uterus, Williams tumor, thyroid gland, vagina, skin and penis).
- Immunodeficiency states( immunoglobulin deficiency, T-lymphopathy, Wiskott-Aldridge syndrome).
- Other diseases( cirrhosis of the liver, eosinophilia of prematurity, congenital heart disease, chorea, magnesium deficiency, eosinophilic syndrome, splenectomy, hypoxia, caseous tuberculosis of lymph nodes, radioactive irradiation, scarlet fever, peritoneal dialysis, eosinophilic family leukocytosis, etc.).
It should also be noted that the syndrome of eosinophilia-myalgia can occur on the background of taking some medications: drugs containing sex hormones, Aspirin, anti-tuberculosis drugs, Papaverina, Euphylline, Imipramine, Dimedrol, penicillin antibiotics, preparations of gold, sulfanilamide drugs, B vitamins, β-blockers, Phenibut, Chymotrypsin, Chlorpropamide, and Miscleron.
Eosinophilia: symptoms of
Symptoms of this pathological condition are caused by diseases in which it is observed.
1. Reactive and autoimmune diseases. With such diseases, the following symptoms are most often noted:
- weight reduction;
- temperature increase;
- joint pain;
- pulmonary fibrosis;
- congestive heart failure;
- inflammatory lesions of veins and arteries;
- multiple organ failure.
2. Parasitic diseases. With such deviations observed:
- hepatosplenomegaly( enlarged spleen or liver);
- myalgia( ie pain in the muscles and joints);
- headaches, fever, weakness, nausea, dizziness, decreased appetite;
- lymphadenopathy( tenderness and enlargement of the lymph nodes);
- increased heart rate, edema on the eyelids and face, rash on the skin, hypotension;
- Leffler's syndrome when moving the larvae( chest pain, dyspnea, cough with asthmatic component).
3. Skin and allergic diseases:
- appearance of itching, rash, blisters, dry skin, exfoliation of the epidermis and ulcers on the skin.
4. Gastrointestinal diseases.
- Many diseases of the digestive tract cause disruption of the intestinal flora, which ultimately slows down the process of cleansing the body of toxins and toxins. As a rule, in the future this leads to an increased content of eosinophils in the blood. With this deviation, the patient may be concerned about pain in the near-umbilical region, vomiting, convulsions, nausea, diarrhea and signs of hepatitis( jaundice, tenderness and enlargement of the liver).
5. Diseases of the blood.
- Such a deviation is characterized by frequent infectious diseases, lymph node involvement, enlarged spleen and liver, cough, dyspnoea, cyanosis of the skin.
In patients with lymphogranulomatosis, pain in the joints and bones, weakness, fever, pruritus on the skin surface, cough, lymphadenopathy and so on can be observed. Eosinophilia with lymphomas is accompanied by a decrease in motor activity and a decrease in weight, as well as an increase in body temperature.
When a tumor appears in the abdominal cavity, signs such as thirst, intestinal obstruction, and enlarged abdomen are noted. From the side of the CNS, headaches, paresis and paralysis, as well as hearing and vision loss, can be observed. In addition, often there is discomfort behind the breastbone, face swelling, coughing, swallowing.
What is pulmonary eosinophilia?
Pulmonary eosinophilia is the infiltration of pulmonary tissues by eosinophils. This deviation combines the following states:
- pulmonary infiltrates;
- eosinophilic granulomas;
- eosinophilic pneumonia;
- eosinophilic vasculitis of the lung.
How to identify a child?
Eosinophilia in children is detected during a general blood test. It should be noted that this phenomenon in children is of a non-permanent nature and disappears immediately after the body weight of the baby reaches its normal value.
The most common causes of this deviation in young children are:
- allergic reactions;
- parasitic infestations;
- eosinophilic gastroenteritis;
- hereditary diseases( for example, family histiocytosis).
Diagnosis in adult patients
Now you know: eosinophilia - what is it. It should be noted that in order to detect such a deviation, it is only necessary to make a general blood test. In the course of such a study, the specialist calculates the percentage ratio of eosinophils, due to which the attending physician can diagnose.
In this pathological condition, signs of anemia may also be observed( that is, the number of red blood cells in the blood is reduced).To identify the disease that led to eosinophilia, you should conduct a biochemical blood test, as well as feces and urine.
How to treat?
Treat eosinophilia as an independent disease does not make any sense. First, the patient should find out the true cause of this pathological condition, and only then, together with the doctor, to develop an effective regimen for the treatment of the underlying disease, because of which such a deviation is observed.
The types and dosages of drugs that will be included in the course depend on the causes of eosinophilia, as well as the severity and stage of the disease. It is likely that the patient will, on the contrary, refuse to take some of the medicines prescribed earlier.
Eosinophilia in animals
This deviation in cats and dogs is indicative of skin and allergic diseases, as well as of worm infection. Some of these diseases can be infected by a person who contains these animals at home. In this regard, it is recommended to consult with a veterinarian about the possibility of treating your pet.