Inflammation of the tonsils: symptoms, treatment, photo
The inflammation of the tonsils, the symptoms, the treatment of which is known to almost everyone, remains the most common infectious disease. About 15% of the world's population suffers from a chronic form of tonsillitis. The tonsillitis with inflammation of the tonsils proceeds quite hard: the body temperature rises, the pain syndrome is pronounced, and sometimes the breathing and swallowing processes are disturbed. Especially often children are affected by the activity of lymphoid tissue. Few people did not worry about the removal and treatment of adenoids, tubal tonsils, glands of the palate. Let's try to understand the reason and determine the correct approach to the treatment of inflammation.
Structure and function of
The pharynx is a connection between the oral cavity, nasal passages, ears, larynx and esophagus. In total, along its length there are six tonsils: two palatine and tubal, pharyngeal and ligulate. They consist of lymphatic tissue, which constantly produces lymphocytes and other cells to protect the immune system. Together, all the tonsils constitute a pharyngeal "ring".It does not let pass harmful bacteria with air, which we inhale inside the body.
Palatine tonsils are located on the right and left of the pharynx. They can be seen on their own in the mirror, opening their mouths wide. Most often they take the blow, which leads to a painful sore throat. Tubular tonsils are located deeper: in the region of the hole for swallowing next to the ear canals. Such a name they got because of the Eustachian tubes that are nearby. The connection of the oral cavity and the nasopharynx is protected by the pharyngeal tonsil. And the closing link of the pharyngeal ring is the lingual amygdala located at the base of the tongue from the back. The tonsils of a healthy person cope without any problems with any infection, blocking its entry into the body.
Inflammation of the tonsils in adults and children primarily indicates a decrease in immunity. Lymphocytes and other cells could not stop the infection, and the disease began to develop. The place of infection with bacteria is inflamed. And first of all, the tonsils react.
Inflammation of the tonsils in the throat: the causes of
The soreness of the glands always causes an infection. It falls into the oral cavity and nose in many ways. Most often the disease develops according to the following scenarios:
- Exposure to pathogenic microorganisms: streptococci, pneumococci and other similar bacteria with subsequent infection of the whole organism.
- Subcooling in conjunction with the weakness of immunity with the further development of tonsillitis.
- Infection from a patient with an infection that causes inflammation of the tonsils. Symptoms and treatment usually coincide with the pattern that occurs at the source.
- The development of the disease due to tooth decay, inflammation of the gums, a permanent cold.
By the nature of the pathogen, tonsillitis is distinguished by viral, bacterial, fungal or herpetic origin.
Catarrhal angina is the easiest form of inflammation of the tonsils of the tonsils.
The defeat of the surface layer of glands indicates the occurrence of catarrhal angina, the causative agent of which is most often group A streptococcus. This is the initial stage of the inflammatory process, which can transform into lacunar, follicular or phlegmonous sore throat. Adults endure the disease quite easily, which can not be said about children. It is worth paying attention to the fact that catarrhal angina with serous raid is the main symptom of scarlet fever.
The main symptoms of the defeat of the outer shell of tonsils include:
- sharp pain in the throat, interfering with normal swallowing;
- subfebrile temperature, sometimes heat up to 40 degrees( especially in children under 3 years old);
- intoxication of the body;
- reddening of the tonsils, their swelling, absence of plaque( with diphtheria and scarlet fever, serous);
- enlarged lymph nodes under the jaw;
- general weakness, soreness in muscles and joints;
- fever in the throat.
Inflammation of the tonsils in a child with catarrhal angina is accompanied by severe pain in the throat and leads to rapid loss of fluid. The general condition is weak and requires a sparing regimen of the day. It also happens that children suffer from angina easily. Adults do not experience severe sickness and quickly restore their health.
Treatment of catarrhal angina
Even mild inflammation of the tonsils in a child is often accompanied by a severe condition: high fever, weakness, sharp pain in the throat. If you find the first symptoms, you should definitely call a doctor, because angina is a concomitant sign of many infectious diseases( diphtheria, scarlet fever).After examining the doctor, the best tactics will be strict adherence to all prescriptions in order to eliminate the inflammation of the tonsils, symptoms. Treatment in a child is usually based on penicillin antibiotics, bed rest and vitamin therapy. In addition, you can use rinses from broths of chamomile, celandine, other medicinal herbs. It should be ensured that the baby uses a sufficient amount of warm liquid.
Treatment in adults is carried out depending on the general well-being and clinical picture. But for a faster and more effective recovery, antibiotics are prescribed. They remove inflammations of various sprays, antibacterial plates for resorption, rinsing. To prevent the development of complications, it is recommended to comply with bed rest until complete recovery of the body.
Severe forms of affection of palatine tonsils
With poor treatment of superficial inflammation, the disease progresses to deeper areas of the glands: lacunae. There is a white scurf or even some purulent follicles. Angina passes into a severe form, requiring qualitative treatment. Distinguish lacunar and follicular type of disease. They differ in characteristic features, and sometimes flow on different sides of the pharynx simultaneously.
Purulent inflammation of the tonsils causes rapid reproduction and life activity of cocci. The disease is accompanied by:
- dry mouth and constant thirst;
- cough, a sore throat;
- severe pain, which when swallowed gives into the ear;
- formation of follicles( yellow-dirty "grains") with pus inside;
- general weakness, high temperature;
- constipation in adults, vomiting or diarrhea in children.
The condition is dangerous for complications for the heart and kidneys. That is why it is extremely important to be treated properly and not neglect the regime. Lacunar tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils, the symptoms, the treatment of which is very similar to the follicular type of the disease. A distinctive feature is the formation of a white coating and a sharp pain in the throat, which occurs suddenly. Another day a person can not feel unpleasant sensations, and in the evening there will be all the signs of angina. There are cases when on one of the palatine tonsils the follicular type developed, and on the other - lacunar type.
Methods of treatment of follicular and lacunar angina
As for an adult, and for a child, a purulent inflammation of the tonsils is very dangerous. Treatment should be carried out strictly under the supervision of a doctor. There are two methods: medicamentous and surgical. Of course, the basic therapy can be supported by folk remedies to reduce the inflammation of the tonsils, symptoms. What antibiotic treatment is carried out? Usually, the use of a wide range of drugs is envisaged: penicillin series, "Erythromycin", "Sumamed".In the case of viral defeat, antiviral drugs are used. Prescriptions should be performed only by a doctor, taking into account the nature of the course of the disease and the individual characteristics of the organism. In addition to antibiotics, appoint:
- follicular lavage with antiseptic solutions;
- suction of pus with vacuum;
- local injection;
- treatment of the tonsils with an oil solution that promotes healing;
- vitamins and immunostimulants.
It is necessary to pay attention to children's inflammation of the tonsils. Symptoms, treatment Komarovsky differs from the adult course of the disease. According to the famous pediatrician, the use of antibiotics is a mandatory requirement, otherwise tonsillitis can not be cured. In addition, most rheumatic diseases and heart defects develop precisely because of the activity of cocci in angina. Penicillin series are considered the safest and are recommended even to newborn children. In addition, it is necessary to provide the child with an abundant warm drink and food in the form of soft mashed potatoes and cereals.
Phlegmonous tonsillitis: symptoms, treatment, photo
Phlegmonous tonsillitis - or purulent acute inflammation of the cellular tissue near the tonsils - a frequent complication of tonsillitis. It usually occurs 1-2 days after the inflammation of the palatine tonsils. Phlegmonous tonsillitis is unilateral. It rarely develops on both palatine tonsils. It is characterized by acute pain during swallowing, high fever, weakness, increased salivation. The affected amygdala increases in size and shifts toward the center of the larynx with pulling downward.
Delayed treatment can trigger the onset of an abscess, which is a confirmation of the diagnosis - "phlegmonous inflammation of the tonsils".Symptoms, treatment with antibiotics is similar to the previous case. The main rule: to start taking medication as soon as possible. The doctor will prescribe antibiotics( penicillin series, "Erythromycin" "Sumamed"), as well as anti-inflammatory drugs, immunostimulants. In the first days of treatment the patient must comply with bed rest. When an abscess is formed, it is opened by a surgical procedure. Then wash, if necessary, remove palatine tonsils in order to avoid complicated conditions.
Inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsil
The nasopharyngeal tonsil, commonly called adenoids, is the first line of defense with nasal breathing. At the slightest signs of the disease, they increase in size. If the disease occurs frequently, with an interval of less than one week, the amygdala does not have time to recover and chronic inflammation develops. Most adenoids increase in childhood, because they play a major role in protecting the body from infections. After 13-15 years they decrease in size and almost never become inflamed.
Provokes proliferation of lymphatic tissue frequent runny nose. To suspect an inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsil follows, if there are signs:
- a protracted runny nose, which is difficult to treat;
- obstructed nasal breathing and absence of rhinitis;
- frequent mouth breathing, especially at night;
- colds, the gap between which is only 1-2 weeks.
Provoke inflammation of adenoids and infectious diseases. For example, scarlet fever, measles, whooping cough, flu. Often parents do not even suspect of problems with the pharyngeal tonsil, which indicates a poor awareness of the signs of their increase and proliferation. Chronic process can lead to complications from the heart, kidneys, musculoskeletal system. Distressed breathing, numerous proliferations of tissues sometimes lead even to defects of the upper jaw.
Treatment of adenoiditis
Success in the fight against the inflamed pharyngeal tonsil depends on many factors: the approach to treatment, the qualifications and experience of the doctor, and the lack of haste. It should also be taken into account that with any cold, adenoids increase. And this does not always mean the development of adenoiditis. Often after recovery, they come back to normal. Another thing is when in a hurry the infection is not cured, and the weakened child picks it up again. The tonsil does not have time to recover and inflames anew, which provokes sprawl.
There are two approaches to the treatment of adenoids: conservative and surgical. First of all, it is recommended to try out all possible ways of medicamentous action:
- rinsing the nose with saline solution, herbal decoctions and special preparations;
- use of anti-inflammatory drops;
- general immunotherapy;
If, after a long and persistent struggle, adenoids do not decrease in size, but only grow, they will most likely have to resort to surgical removal. It is a mistake to think that after this the child will cease to hurt at all. Yes, this is a huge hotbed of infection. But the threat he presents only with significant growth and serious violations of nasal breathing. If there is no pharyngeal tonsil, the infection will spread faster and find a "loophole" for its comfortable existence. The adenoiditis will be replaced by tonsillitis or otitis.
It should be remembered that removal of adenoids does not solve the problem of weakened immunity and frequent colds. This is an extreme measure, on which it is justified to go only with a significant increase in the amygdala and the absence of the effect of conservative treatment. The removal is performed by the ENT surgeon using a special loop under local anesthesia. A more modern method is endoscopy, which requires general anesthesia and allows you to completely get rid of autonomic proliferation of adenoids and avoid relapses.
Inflammation of the tonsils: symptoms, treatment of lesions of lingual lymphoid tissue
The lingual tonsil is located on the back of the tongue from the back. Her tissue inflames extremely rarely. If the lesions still begin, then usually against a background of tonsillitis catarrhal, follicular or phlegmonous. Acute inflammation of the tonsils of the palate or pharynx speaks of the extensive localization of the infection, which also joins the tongue. The clinical picture in this case is characterized by soreness in the movement of the tongue and its swelling, considerable difficulties in chewing and swallowing, speech disturbance. The remaining symptoms coincide with the signs that describe the inflammation of the tonsils. The temperature is subfebrile, it can rise to 39-40 degrees.
The approach to treatment is based on the use of antibiotics, bed rest and restorative drugs. The lack of the effect of medication is due to individual resistance to the action of drugs or the development of a sublingual abscess. To avoid complications, inflammation of the lingual tonsil should be treated by a qualified specialist - ENT.
Damage to tubal tonsils
Pipe lymphoid tissue is located near the Eustachian tube on both sides of the jaw. Inflammation of these tonsils is often attributed to ear diseases, since pain occurs precisely in this localization. The following symptoms distinguish otitis from tubal lesions:
- the primary source of pain is the throat, after which unpleasant sensations occur in one ear or in two immediately;
- on the back wall of the pharynx draining mucous or purulent discharge;
- enlarged the lymph nodes under the jaw, and the parotid did not increase at all or slightly react to the infection;
- there is an intoxication of the body.
As with inflammation of other tonsils, the disease is more severe in children than in adults. The condition is accompanied by a high fever, often there is a cough, convulsions, vomiting. The approach to alleviating the patient's condition is built on the same principles as those used to eliminate infectious inflammation of the tonsils. Treatment is based on taking a course of general-purpose antibiotics or antiviral drugs( depending on the pathogen).In addition, it is recommended to provide the baby warm drink, soft and liquid food, as well as a good rest. The intake of immunostimulants and vitamins will only improve the condition and accelerate recovery.
Inflammation of the tonsils is the most common disease of ENT organs, especially in childhood. This is explained by the function that their nature endowed. Forming a pharyngeal ring, the lymphoid tissue produces antibodies and lymphocytes that actively fight against any infection that enters the body. A healthy person with strong immunity practically does not have problems with tonsils - they perfectly perform their work and have time to recover.
But with weakening of the body, which contributes to prolonged hypothermia, stress, poor sleep and nutrition, strong protection is destroyed, and tonsils do not cope with their task. Inflammation develops. Avoiding problems with swelling and proliferation of lymphoid formations will help only a correct understanding of the nature of the problem. Remember that it is not the tonsils that are to blame but the weakened state of the body. The first step towards the treatment of an adult or a child should be a trip to the immunologist and increased attention to health.