Neurodermatitis in a child: causes, symptoms and treatment
What is dangerous for a child's neurodermatitis? This question is asked by many parents, because children are more prone to these or other skin diseases.
The rash on the skin, itching, burning is something that many babies have to face. Naturally, these symptoms cause concern for parents. Worried mothers look for any available information. What is neurodermatitis? Symptoms and treatment, causes and possible complications - these are the points that should definitely be considered.
What is an ailment? General information
Skin diseases can hardly be considered a rarity. Neurodermatitis in a child is a very common problem. In medicine, this disease often appears under the term "atopic dermatitis".
The disease is an inflammatory lesion of the skin tissue, which is accompanied by redness and itching. Why does such a skin disease develop in children? Dermatitis( neurodermatitis) has an autoimmune origin and is associated with the reaction of the immune system to various stimuli. It is worth noting that children are more prone to this disease. According to statistics, about 40% of all inflammatory skin diseases fall on the neurodermatitis.
Unfortunately, this disease is chronic - periods of exacerbation are replaced by more or less long periods of relative well-being. Nevertheless, with the help of modern methods of treatment and the right diet, stable remission can be achieved.
The main causes of the development of the disease
Neurodermatitis is associated with the reactions of the immune system - for one reason or another the child's organism reacts inappropriately to contact with various substances. In the role of allergens food is most often, although sometimes allergic reactions are associated with the use of cosmetics, contacts with household chemicals, the wearing of synthetic materials.
The causes of neurodermatitis in children may be different. To begin with, it is worth mentioning the genetic predisposition that occurs in this disease. There are other risk factors that can trigger the development of the disease. To their list carry:
- constant stresses, strengthened psychoemotional loads;
- various disorders in the digestive system;
- mental disorders, disorders in the functioning of the nervous system;
- inflammatory diseases, regardless of origin and location( including those ailments that occur secretly);
- intoxication of the body;
- helminthic invasion;
- unfavorable living conditions( from the point of view of ecology);
- when it comes to neurodermatitis in newborns, then its development may be due to the malnutrition of a woman during pregnancy and lactation.
What symptoms are accompanied by ailment? Of course, the clinical picture in this case may look different, because everything depends on the form of the ailment, its causes and other factors.
As a rule, small areas of redness appear on the baby's skin. It is also possible the appearance of a small bubble rash. Papules are often opened from permanent scratching, as a result of which the affected areas are covered with dried crusts.
Neurodermatitis is accompanied by a constant itch, which affects the emotional state and well-being of the child. The skin becomes dry, begins to peel off. Due to dehydration of the upper layers of the epidermis, the dermal pattern becomes more distinct. Perhaps the appearance of darkened, coarsened areas on the skin.
Features of diffuse and limited neurodermatitis
Diffuse neurodermatitis is considered quite common. This is one of the severe forms of the disease, since rashes often infect the entire skin of the child. The illness is difficult to treat.
If we talk about the limited form of the disease, it is characterized by the formation of single lesions. The inflammatory process can be localized in any part of the body, but the focus is usually small.
Other forms of neurodermatitis and their features
There are other forms of the disease that occur less frequently, but nevertheless are accompanied by very characteristic symptoms.
- It is quite common to record a linear neurodermatitis on the hands of children. With this form of the disease, the eruptions are located linearly and localized on the skin of the extremities.
- In the case of the follicular form of the disease, those areas of skin on which the largest number of hair follicles are located are affected. Most often, children develop neurodermatitis of the scalp.
- Hypertrophic form of the disease is characterized by the appearance of a rash with tumor elements. Most often, the rashes are localized in the inguinal zone.
- Psoriasomorphic folliculitis most often affects the scalp and facial skin. Rashes in appearance resemble psoriatic plaques.
The presence of characteristic rashes, as well as dry skin and other symptoms, are usually sufficient reason to suspect the presence of neurodermatitis in a child. Naturally, further studies are conducted.
It is very important to collect as much as possible a complete anamnesis of the child. The presence in the medical map of information on allergic diseases only confirms suspicions of neurodermatitis. In addition, allergic tests are carried out - so you can find out what exactly triggers the reaction from the immune system.
During the blood test, an increase in the level of immunoglobulin E can be detected. Sometimes a biopsy of skin tissues is performed.
Modern treatment of chronic neurodermatitis in children with
Therapy for this form of dermatitis must necessarily be complex. The list of drugs is determined individually, because much depends on the severity of the ailment and the age of the child. In most cases, the following treatments are included in the treatment regimen:
- antihistamines that help to relieve edema, inhibit the development of an allergic reaction( Claritin, Tavegil, Cimetidine);
- hepatoprotectors, which protect liver cells and improve the process of cleansing the body of toxins( "Karsil", "Essentiale");
- enzymes that help to regulate the digestive tract( Mezim, Festal);
- corticosteroids, and in most cases in the form of ointments( "Hydrocortisone");
- immunomodulating medications( "Timalin", "Levamisol");
- vitamins and mineral complexes( available for children of different ages);
- hyposensitizing drugs( "Hemodez");
- sedative medications that help to get rid of the increased excitation of the nervous system( tincture of the root of valerian or motherwort);
- various ointments for external use, including, for example, tar ointment.
Quite often in modern medicine they face such a problem as neurodermatitis( atopic dermatitis) in children. Drug treatment certainly helps. However, sometimes some additional procedures are necessary for complete recovery.
Magnetotherapy, selective phototherapy, and also treatment with diadynamic currents are effective. Quite often affected areas of the skin are irradiated with an individually selected dose of ultraviolet. We recommend also reflexology and thalassotherapy, which have a positive effect on the work of the whole organism, including the nervous system.
Sanatorium treatment is what doctors recommend if it was diagnosed in children. Dermatitis( neurodermatitis including) can be treated with sulfide, hydrogen sulphide and radon baths.
Diet with neurodermatitis in children
There is one more point that should be paid attention. Nutrition for children with neurodermatitis is an extremely important factor, because in most cases, the reaction of the immune system is associated with sensitivity to food. To begin with, it is necessary to exclude potential allergens from the diet. In most cases, it is cow's milk( or infant formula containing casein), eggs( particularly yolks), red fruits.
A child with a neurodermatitis is recommended to give up sweets. Sharp changes in blood glucose have a negative effect on the work of the nervous system, and increased excitement, in turn, can only exacerbate the situation. Moreover, sweets and other sweets, as a rule, contain a huge amount of dyes and flavors, which can also provoke an allergic reaction. If we are talking about an older child, then from the menu it is necessary to exclude canned products, spices, as well as food containing synthetic dyes, preservatives and other harmful substances.
Recommendations of specialists
Now you know what neurodermatitis is. Symptoms and treatment in this case are closely related. Naturally, the right diet, anti-inflammatory drugs and other methods of treatment will help to eliminate the main symptoms.
Nevertheless, there are also a few tips that doctors recommend to follow. Neurodermatitis in a child is a serious problem that can not be ignored. The skin of the baby should be kept clean, so in no case can one ignore the fusion of personal hygiene. Decoction of medicinal herbs can be added to bath water. Cosmetics for care( soap, lotions for the body, baby cream) must necessarily be qualitative and hypoallergenic. Specialists also recommend paying attention to clothes for the child - it is better to give preference to natural, light materials that will ensure a good "ventilation" of the skin and will not irritate the tender skin tissue of the baby.
As already mentioned, allergic reactions in neurodermatitis are directly related to increased excitation of the nervous system. Therefore, it is important to create comfortable conditions for the child( as well as for the elderly patient) without quarrels and stresses. In the presence of serious problems with the behavior of the baby and control over emotions, it is worthwhile to think about visiting a psychologist who will help the child and parents find a common language.
Are folk remedies effective for
What else can I do if my child's neurodermatitis is diagnosed? People's means, of course, exist. Moreover, home remedies sometimes help to cope with skin rashes and itching.
- It is believed that the neurodermite is helped by a decoction from the root of burdock. Two small spoons of vegetable raw materials should be brewed in a glass of boiling water( boil on a small fire for about 10 minutes).Then the liquid must be cooled and filtered. Kids take 50 ml of decoction( preferably before meals).
- Compresses from decoctions of horsetail, oak and mallow bark help to remove the itching. You can wipe lightly the affected areas of the skin with a cotton swab dipped in cooked broth. The procedure is repeated about 6 times a day.
- Anti-inflammatory properties are possessed by such plants as chamomile, string and sage. Of these, you can do compresses. In addition, broths are added to bathing water.
Of course, compresses and medicinal decoctions are only auxiliaries. Refuse from drug therapy is not in any case.
Possible complications of neurodermatitis
As the statistics show, the child's neurodermatitis in most cases is successfully treated. Nevertheless, in some cases, the ailment leads to the development of certain complications.
To begin with it is necessary to say that the constant itching affects the emotional state of the child. He becomes restless, does not sleep well, loses his appetite. Older children are more nervous and irritable. It is possible to develop an asthenic condition.
From scratching on the affected areas of the skin, scratches and sores appear. Sometimes neurodermatitis can be complicated by bacterial and fungal infections, which are sometimes difficult to treat.
Preventive measures and prognosis
Unfortunately, there is no specific medicine that allows to reduce the risk of developing the disease to a minimum. Nevertheless, patients from the high-risk group must comply with certain rules, in particular, exclude any contact with the allergen. Children need to follow the same diet as during treatment, eliminating potentially hazardous products from the diet. It is also recommended to wear clothes( especially underwear) made from natural materials and use quality cosmetics for skin care.
According to statistics, in most cases, periodic outbreaks of neurodermatitis occur by 20-30 years, so that patient forecasts are favorable.