Glycemia - what is it? The rate of glucose in the blood, deviations and their causes
Blood is called the fluid, mobile tissue inside the body. It moves continuously through a closed circle of veins and blood vessels, performing many useful functions. Blood has many indicators, and one of them is glycemia. What it is? What are its symptoms and treatment? You will find all the answers in this article.
Glycemia - what is it?
The human body is a complex system. One of the most important concepts for him is glycemia. What it is? The word is of Greek origin and includes two parts, translated as: "blood" and "sweet". In other words, glycemia is the most important variable in a living organism, which can be regulated and denotes the content of glucose in the blood - a carbohydrate that is the most important and universal source of energy for cells and tissues (more than 50% of the energy that is consumed by the body is produced by oxidizing this substances). TikTok online viewer and downloader TikTokni.com search profiles, videos, music, followers for free
A prerequisite for this indicator is sustainability. Otherwise, the brain simply stops functioning in the right way. What is the normal threshold for such a characteristic of the body as glycemia? The norm is from 3.4 to 5.5 mmol per liter of blood.
If the level of glucose in the blood falls to a critical level or rises sharply, then the person may lose consciousness, begin to beat in convulsions. Coma is a particularly difficult result of raising or lowering blood sugar.
The term "glycemia"
In the 19th century, a physiologist from France Claude Bernard, in order to designate an indicator of glucose or sugar in the blood of a living organism, proposed the described term.
The glycemic level can be normal, high, or low. The limits of the normal concentration of sugar in the blood are from 3.5 to 5.5 mmol / l.
The correct mode of operation of the brain and the whole organism depends on the stability of this indicator. If the level of glucose in the blood is low, then they talk about hypoglycemia, and if it is higher than normal levels, then about hyperglycemia. Both of these conditions are dangerous, because going beyond the critical coefficients is fraught with fainting and even coma for a person.
If the concentration of glucose in the blood is within normal limits, then the symptoms of glycemia do not appear, because the body copes well with stress and functions correctly. A wide variety of pathologies appear only when the norm is violated.
High and low glycemia: what is it?
If the figures of the permissible value are exceeded, then hyperglycemia is manifested. This condition primarily corresponds to people with diabetes. Due to the lack of their own insulin, the sugar coefficient in the blood of these patients rises after a meal.
And its lack in the body is called hypoglycemia. It should be noted that this condition is also typical for perfectly healthy people with a strict diet or excessive physical exertion. In addition, patients with diabetes mellitus may also suffer from hypoglycemia if there is an overdose of a hypoglycemic drug or the dosage of insulin is incorrectly selected.
Sugar glycemia with elevated glucose numbers is called hyperglycemia. Its symptoms can be as follows:
- itchy skin;
- intense thirst;
- increased urination;
- fast fatiguability;
- in severe cases, loss of consciousness or coma may occur.
If there is not enough sugar in the blood, then this is called hypoglycemia. Among her symptoms:
- a strong feeling of hunger;
- violation of the general coordination of movements;
- general weakness;
- loss of consciousness or coma is possible.
How to determine the level of glycemia?
There are two main ways to measure blood sugar. The first is a glucose tolerance test, the second is the measurement of glucose concentration using a blood test.
The first indicator that doctors identify is a violation of the level of fasting glucose, but it does not always indicate the presence of a disease. This is a very common method of measuring the amount of sugar in capillary blood after an eight-hour fast. Blood is taken from the finger in the morning after sleep.
IGN (impaired fasting glycemia) is a condition when glucose in the blood (plasma) on an empty stomach turns out to be above the normal level, but below the threshold value, which is a diagnostic sign of sugar diabetes. For example, a cutoff value of 6.4 mmol / L is considered.
Remember that in order to confirm predictions and make accurate diagnoses, you need to carry out such studies at least twice. They should be held on different days to rule out situational errors. In addition, to obtain reliable results, it is important not to take hormonal drugs.
Additional research is the sugar tolerance test. As a rule, it is performed to clarify diagnoses. For this trial, the procedure is as follows:
- a standard fasting blood glucose test is performed;
- the test subject takes 75 grams of glucose orally (usually in the form of an aqueous solution);
- two hours later, a second blood sampling and analysis is performed.
The values obtained are considered normal if they do not reach 7.8 mmol / L. A characteristic symptom of diabetes mellitus is a glucose concentration exceeding 10.3 mmol / l. With an indicator of 10.3 mmol / l, additional examinations are proposed.
Glycemia: What to Do?
If necessary, the doctor prescribes treatment for glycemia.
However, in this disease, the most important thing is to follow the correct diet. Patients with diabetes mellitus need to pay special attention and caution to such a characteristic of food as the glycemic index. The key to well-being is eating foods with a low index.
Diet is no less important. Both in the case of hyperglycemia and in the case of hypoglycemia, complex carbohydrates (foods that absorbed in the body longer and at the same time provide it with energy for a long period of time), there is often, but little by little. Also, foods should be limited in fats and high in protein.
If you have a glycemic disorder, treatment is prescribed by your doctor. The basis of all therapeutic actions is the adjustment of the patient's lifestyle. In severe cases, it is possible to use medications. Diet is fundamental to the management of glycemia.
People with diabetes need to be more selective in their choice of food: they need to eat only food that is characterized by a low glycemic index. With both high and low glucose levels, you need to adhere to fractional nutrition: eat a little, but often.
From the menu, you should completely exclude "bad" carbohydrates (for example, products from white flour and sugar) and limit the amount of fat. The basis of the diet should be complex carbohydrates - substances that provide the body with energy for a sufficiently long time. Also, the protein content in food should be in sufficient quantity.
Properly organized physical activity and further weight loss is an equally important factor in the treatment of glycemia.
Often, signs of abnormalities in the amount of sugar in the blood do not appear at all or are associated with other diseases and are detected randomly. In such situations, one cannot refuse treatment, even if the patient feels subjectively well. It should be noted that sometimes glycemia is caused by heredity, and people who are predisposed to such diseases are recommended to have regular blood tests.