Evaluation of physical development by centile tables. Mandatory anthropometric data for assessing physical development

Every child is different - it's not a secret. However, there are indicators that children in certain age groups must meet the average statistical standards. Such parameters help the doctor to determine the possible presence of problems from the physical and mental development, and also to assume the presence of any disease.

assessment of physical development

Evaluation of the child's physical development is a very important point for any doctor and, of course, for parents. What do all these scales, scores and tables mean in the life of the baby and where do they come from?

Newborn

When a child is born, he immediately gets his first evaluation. On the Apgar scale, the neonatologist places a certain number of points in the first and fifth minutes of the baby's life. From these two figures depends whether he will stay with his mother or he needs additional medical help, the question of the first vaccinations is being decided.

evaluation of a child

Babe up to the year

After the baby turns one month old, the mother must carry the baby to the scheduled receptions to the pediatrician. This happens on schedule, when the baby is executed:

  • one month;
  • three months;
  • six months;
  • nine months;
  • twelve months.

methods of assessing physical development

At these receptions, the evaluation of physical development on centile tables is compulsorily carried out. They also record the age when the child began to smile, first sat down, got up, took the first steps, said the first word, the timing of teething. Measure:

  • Weight.
  • Body length.
  • Volume / circumference of the head.
  • The size of the chest.
  • Body temperature.
  • The fontanel size.

assessment of physical development by centile tables

Based on these data and possible complaints from the mother, the child can be sent for additional tests or specialist intake. In other cases, an evaluation of physical development is made for the centile tables. The norm of development according to these tables is always considered to be in the middle corridors, that is, in the range of 25-75 percent. But the child can also develop quite normally, if the data for all indicators are in the same range, lower or higher than the average( in this case they speak about the features of the build).

Centenary tables for boys up to the year

To measure the growth of a baby for up to a year, a special board with bumps is used in the clinic. One of them is pressed the head of the child, the other - the legs.

Age of the boy
, in the months

Height of the boy

Centval interval,%

3-9

10-24

25-49

50-74

75-89

90-96

97-100

newborn

46, 5

48

49, 8

51, 3

52, 5

53, 5

55

1

49, 5

51, 5

52, 7

54, 5

55, 5

56, 5

57, 5

3

55, 5

57, 5, 5

58, 1

60

61

62

64

6

61, 5

63

65

66

68

69

71, 5

9

67, 5

68, 2

70

71, 5

73, 2

75

79

12

71

72, 5

74

75, 5

77, 3

80

82

The centenary tables for boys and girls alsocontain data on the size of the child's head. Inconsistency with the standards for this parameter is the reason to send the baby to a neurologist.

Age of the
of the boy, in the months

Head circumference of the boy

Cential interval,%

3-9

10-24

25-49

50-74

75-89

90-96

97-100

newborn

33

34

34-35

35

35-37

37

37, 5

1

34, 5

35, 5

36, 5

37

38

39

40, 5

3

38

39

40

40, 5

41, 5

42, 5

43, 5

6

41, 5

42

43

44

45

45, 5

46, 5

9

43, 5

44

45

46

46, 5

47, 5

48

12

44, 5

45, 5

46

47

48

48, 5

49, 5

Factors affecting the physical development of

The physical health of a child is the main indicator of his health. It depends on several factors:

  • climatic conditions;
  • heredity;
  • power supply;
  • the level of material well-being of the family;
  • compliance with the daily routine;
  • parent-child relationship;
  • psychological atmosphere in the family.

centile tables for boys

Mandatory anthropometric data for assessing the physical development of children after the year

The evaluation of the physical development of children after the year occurs according to the following indicators:

  1. Somatic parameters( weight in kg, height in cm, chest circumference in cm).
  2. Somatoscopic indices( skin, mucous membranes, development of subcutaneous fat deposits, development of the musculoskeletal system, level of sexual development).
  3. Physiometric parameters( muscle strength, lung capacity, blood pressure, heart rate).
  4. General health status( past illnesses, presence of chronic ailments).

Methods for assessing physical development are strictly unified, because only by conducting measurements under the same conditions and with the same tools can we talk about the comparability and reliability of the results of the study.

Somatic indicators of

Evaluation of the child's physical development often occurs in this way: the somatic indices of the development of a particular child are compared with the centile tables according to age and sex. How do these tables look for boys, can be considered below.

Age of the
of the boy

Growth of the boy

The interval interval,%

3-9

10-24

25-49

50-74

75-89

90-96

97-100

2 years

81

83

84, 5

87

89

100

94

3 years

88

90

92, 5

96

100

102

104, 5

5 years

99

101, 5

104, 5

108, 5

112

114, 5

117

7 years

111

113, 5

117

121

125

128

130, 5

10 years

126, 5

129, 5

133

138

142

147

149

For girls, growth rates are slightly different. Up to two years they are usually slightly smaller than boys, but after catching up and even ahead in growth.

Age of the
of the girl

Height of the girl

The interval interval,%

3-9

10-24

25-49

50-74

75-89

90-96

97-100

2 years

80

82

83, 5

85

87,5

90

92, 5

3 years

89

91

93

95, 5

98

100, 5

103

5 years

100

102, 5

105

107, 5

111

113, 5

117

7 years

111

113, 5

117

121

125

128

131, 5

10 years

127

130, 5

134, 5

19

143

147

151

Study of somatoscopic indices

Methods for assessing physical development include a number of basic measurement indicators. They can be studied in the following table.

Characteristics of

Parameters of

Norm

Note

Fatigue

Thickness of fat fold on abdomen

1-2 cm

Side at navel level and under scapula

Shape and features of chest development

Cylindrical, flat, conical, mixed, rickety, barrel-shaped

Cylindrical

Sometimes in young children, a chest of mixed type

can be considered as the norm. Backbone of

Slim, chunky, intermediate

-

-

Spine

Normal, kyfotilordotic

Normal - s-shaped in the sagittal plane

Scoliosis also includes scoliosis

Foot shape

Vaulted, flat, flat

Vaulted( normal)

-

Physiometric indicators

Evaluation of the physical development of schoolchildren occurs including withby measuring the body's functional parameters:

1. The vital capacity( volume) of the lungs is an indicator of the strength of the respiratory muscles and lung volume. The measurement is performed using an air spirometer or a water spirometer. Age indicators for children of different sex and age will differ.

Age

Gender

Girls

Boys

Volume, ml

Strength

Volume, ml

Strength

8 years

1474

280

1670

301

10 years

1903

360

2000

409

15 years

3022

433

3670

729

2. The strength of the muscles of the hands is the degree of development of the muscles. The measurement is carried out by an instrument called a manual dynamometer.
3. Stanovaya force is the force of the muscles that extend the body in the hip joints.
4. CHS - heart rate.

Age, years

Number of beats per minute

1

120-125

3

105-110

5

93-100

7

85-90

10

78-85

15

70-76

5. Blood pressure is measured after seven years. Normally, from this age, the systolic( upper) should be within 100-120 mm Hg.st., and diastolic( lower) - 60-80 mm Hg. Art.

mandatory anthropometric data for the evaluation of physical development

The evaluation of physical development by these indicators is made by comparing the individual indicators and the average values ​​characteristic for a given age and sex group of children.

Other methods for assessing the development of

Mandatory anthropometric data for assessing physical development are used in other methods:

  1. Method of anthropometric standards / sigma deviations. When using this method, the proportionality of development is calculated. This method is rarely used today, because it does not reflect the full picture of development, but explores the elements separately.
  2. Regression scales. Tables for evaluation by this method are based on correlation relationships, which is an undoubted advantage of the method. But it can not be used for children with disproportionate development on individual grounds.
  3. One-dimensional scale Matveeva N. A. This method is used when entering the first class, with the transition to 3, 8 and 6 classes. It takes into account eleven developmental features:
    - body weight,
    - growth;
    - circumference( volume) of the chest;
    - number of molars;
    - lung capacity;
    - frequency( number of beats per minute) of the pulse;
    - the size of the fat fold in the navel;
    - the strength of the muscles of the left hand;
    - the strength of the muscles of the right hand;
    - minimum and maximum blood pressure. evaluation of physical development This method is sufficiently developed, but has the same drawback as the method of anthropometric standards. Therefore, the evaluation of physical development will be more accurate if we use two-dimensional centile tables, which take into account the dependence of body length on mass.
  4. Two-dimensional centile table. The evaluation is based on an eight-point scale that takes into account the relationship between sex, age, length and body weight.
  5. The centenary table for IM Vorontsov. It uses a scale that takes into account the three main indicators - the length of the body, the weight of the child and the size of the chest. Tests( screenings) using this method are used in preventive examinations to identify a group of children with marked developmental abnormalities.
  6. Comprehensive method.

Comprehensive method for assessing the physical development of

All the methods considered above take into account only the morphological data of the development evaluation, but for a growing person it is natural and necessary to take into account biological development. The integrated method includes:

  • Evaluation of biological age( the degree of maturity of the maturation of child systems and organs).Criteria: weight gain and body length for a year, age by the number of teeth, puberty, bone development.
  • Type of constitution of a physique according to the ratio of the shape of the legs, abdomen, thorax, back, development of muscles, bones, adipose tissue.
  • Evaluation of the harmony of developmental features by the ratio of height and body weight.

Integrated assessment of physical development, which is carried out in medical and preventive treatment establishments, as well as during detailed medical examinations, allows children to be divided into five different health groups depending on the data set:

  • I group .It includes children without chronic diseases, who are not ill or rarely sick, developing physically and mentally without departures.
  • II group .This group includes the category of children without chronic diseases and who suffer no more than four times a year, who are at risk of developing chronic diseases, there may be insignificant deviations in the level of functioning of systems and organs.
  • III group identifies children with chronic diseases, pathologies( congenital, not interfering with the body to function normally), often ill( more than four times a year).
  • IV group .Children with developmental defects( congenital), chronic diseases, disturbing the normal state of health and the general state of the body.
  • V group .This group includes children who are ill with serious chronic diseases, which cause obvious frustration and impairment of the functioning of the body.

Adolescents

The evaluation of the physical development of adolescents does not differ from the assessment methods used for all children. All tables and scales include data for children under 17 years old.

Although, of course, we must not forget that the development of girls after nine years and boys after eleven will be significantly different from the development of younger children.

In adolescence, there are significant changes in the proportions of the body and the development of organs and systems:

  • Girls under 14 years are significantly ahead of their peers in terms of weight, height, size of the chest.
  • During this period there is a strong growth jump( the girls will grow by about 25 centimeters and add 25 kilograms, young men - 35 centimeters and 35 kilograms).
  • By the age of 13-15, the formation of secondary sexual characteristics will be completed.
  • Active formation of nervous, psychic, cardiovascular, endocrine systems continues.
  • Pulse and pressure are gradually approaching the parameters of an adult and at 18 years of age they will stop at 120 for 65 in girls and 115 for 60 in boys.

It should be noted that the accelerating rates of physical development( acceleration) have significantly changed the norms of somatic indicators lately.