Influenza: types of influenza, symptoms, treatment, prevention
Influenza is a viral disease transmitted by airborne droplets, affecting the respiratory system, which is part of the ARVI group, causing severe complications, such as pneumonia, hearing loss, vision, death.
Annually, in addition to known, new viruses with altered RNA, causing the flu, appear. Types of influenza A, B, C. Each year there are bursts of epidemics.
A group C virus is considered to be the least dangerous, as it does not cause epidemics, limited only to respiratory diseases without coughing and fever.
Group A virus includes the following strains: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2.The previously unknown most dangerous strain of influenza A / H1N1, or swine flu, without timely, adequate treatment can lead to death.
Constant modification or mutation of the virus allows it to easily evade the immunity of the carrier( human, birds, artiodactyls).While the previously infected carrier is susceptible to influenza throughout life, that is, the host's body produces antibodies against the virus that caused the flu. The types of influenza that attacked a person or an animal will not be perceived by the immune system in the future and will pox the body again, and until the time of antibody production the disease will proceed at full speed.
Most people have innate immunity, but you can resort to vaccination.
Every year more than 25 percent of the world's population develops seasonal influenza, the number of deaths associated with this disease ranges from 3,500 to 50,000( an average of 38,900 a year).
Seasonal flu affects people every year from the beginning of September to the end of May, while the unstable wet weather is standing.
Symptoms of seasonal flu
Often a person can not always immediately distinguish seasonal flu from a cold, as the symptoms are quite similar: sputum discharge, thick discharge, nasal congestion, headache, weakness, heaviness in muscles and joints, fever. Although the majority of the disease passes for seven days without any medical assistance, it is still very dangerous to treat the disease on its own, without the participation of specialists, in some cases it is fraught with complications.
Complications from influenza may occur in:
- bacterial pneumonia;
- sinusitis, deafness, infectious diseases of the inner ear;
- dehydration of the body;
- inflammation of the heart muscle.
There is a certain group of people for whom any influenza virus can be very dangerous:
- elderly men aged sixty-two years;
- women from sixty-seven years of age and older;
- babies and preschoolers.
Treatment of seasonal influenza is recommended to be carried out with such drugs as "Teraflu", "Kodelak", "Panadol", "Doctor Mom".
Prevention measures that are most effective against a viral disease: wearing an antiviral dressing, timely vaccination, the use of an antiseptic for hand disinfection, the intake of vitamins, and the consumption of fruits and vegetables.
Avian influenza in humans
Symptoms of influenza H5N1 are similar to the initial symptoms of the seasonal virus: fever, cough, heaviness in the muscles. In this case, the developed complications in the form of pneumonia or breathing problems result in a lethal outcome in 70-85% of cases. The severity of the disease depends on the patient's immunity or vaccination and on how dangerous this strain of influenza is for a single organism.
The greatest number of infected H5N1 was recorded in Mexico, Taiwan, Japan, Canada. Currently, there are no cases recorded by medicine, when the carrier of the H5N1 virus was a human, but the bird flu continues to be a disease that can be fatal.
Prevention of a Dangerous Disease
There is no reliable data on the transmission of the avian influenza virus from humans to humans, but cases have been reported where infection occurred by direct contact with an infected bird or through surfaces contaminated with faecal masses of feathered peddlers.
Infection from meat or eggs is impossible, as heat treatment kills the virus.
To be protected against a virus, it is necessary:
- You can eat only eggs and meat after careful heat treatment for thirty minutes at 60-65 degrees;
- Wash hands with soap for at least twenty seconds, use an antiseptic in situations where a full wash is not possible.
- Cook poultry meat on a separate cutting board and in a separate bowl.
- To exclude from their diet raw eggs and eggs with semi-salty( liquid) yolk.
- Avoid contact with an infected person, if contact was unavoidable, temperature should be measured for three days at least twice a day, and follow the symptoms within a week.
- During the pandemic and in communication with the patient, it is recommended to wear a mask, changing it every three hours.
- Eat fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C.
Remember! Annual vaccination against seasonal influenza does not contribute to the development of immunity against avian influenza.
Effective drugs for the treatment of the H5N1
virus In detecting early symptoms of avian influenza, patients are prescribed broad-spectrum inhibitors, such as neuraminidases.
Usually, drugs are used for drug treatment: "Oziltamivir", "Zanimivir", "Relenza".If the temperature is raised to 38 degrees, it is recommended to use antipyretic, for example, paracetamol. When complicating the disease and suspected of pneumonia, antibiotics are prescribed.
In some cases, the use of "Antihypin", "Analgin", "Aspirin" can lead to serious consequences, for example, deafness.
H1N1 or a new flu known as pork
For the first time, swine flu cases were reported in the United Kingdom( England) in 2009, within a few months the virus spread to two hundred countries, across all continents.
As a rule, the symptoms of all viral infections are very similar, and the swine flu is no exception. Types of influenza, such as A and C, show the same symptoms as H1N1, but unlike it do not go so painfully and do not give complications in the form of pulmonary pneumonia.
Symptoms of the virus H1N1
Infected with a temperature increase of 38-40 degrees, pathological migraines, nasal congestion combined with a runny nose, swelling of the throat, fatigue, dry cough and shortness of breath, heaviness in the muscles and joints, signs of poisoning.
The course of the disease depends on the health status and the immune system of the individual, but according to the data, all those infected with H1N1 flu began treatment in the first seven days of the disease, so the treatment was successful and without complications.
In case of infection with a virus in a risk group:
- women in 1-3 trimester of pregnancy;
- older people aged sixty;
- babies and children under seven;
- people suffering from chronic diseases: pneumonia, pyelonephritis, diabetes, congenital heart disease, cholecystitis, seasonal asthma.
If a symptom of H1N1 is found, the doctor should be consulted, if there is no possibility to call an ambulance, it is possible to start treatment with antiviral drugs: "Temiflu", "Relenza", "Zanomovir", to enhance the effect, the shock dose should be taken in the first forty-eight hours.
Swine flu in children is treated mainly with "Temiflu" and "Relenza", but they need to be used with extreme caution, since probably side effects such as: heaviness in the abdomen, migraine, signs of acute poisoning.
New flu can be treated with timely vaccination, it is especially important to vaccinate people at risk.
You can avoid contamination if you do not neglect the following measures:
- use a disposable napkin for coughing and sneezing;
- observe the hygiene of hands and face;
- to ventilate the premises, maintain the cleanliness of household items;
- use protective bandage;
- to carry out a timely vaccination.
Swine flu in children is usually epidemic.
The most bloody influenza virus in the history of
Spanish, or Spanish flu, is a virus that has claimed a huge number of lives in the history of human existence. From history it is known that in 1920-1921( for 20 months) more than 600 million people were infected, i.е.30 percent of the world's population. According to the number of deaths, this epidemic is among the most large-scale disasters in the history of mankind. The virus that causes such dangerous epidemics - A / 1HN1.
Symptoms of the disease:
- Gray-blue complexion.
- Infectious pneumonia.
- Cough with blood.
- More severe stages are accompanied by the presence of blood in the lungs, which subsequently leads to death from suffocation.
The disease can pass and is asymptomatic, but in this case the patient dies in a few days.
Spanish influenza acquired its name because of the location in which the pandemic was first recorded - in Spain.
Influenza, such as rotavirus infection or gastroenteritis, is not actually considered a flu, as the causative agent of the disease is the calicivirus, which leads to inflammation of the human gastrointestinal tract. In general, this disease affects children under the age of seven, and in rare cases, adults. At the same time, intestinal flu in adults with a strong immune system can proceed in a latent form, full recovery in this case occurs within a week.
Usually, the virus enters the body with non-observance of personal hygiene. In people, gastric flu was called "sickness of dirty hands".
Symptoms and treatment of gastric flu
A few hours before the onset of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, a cough with phlegm appears, signs of sore throat, runny nose, which go away in a few days.
When the first signs of the disease appear, you should consult a doctor who will prescribe medicinal enzymes to improve the digestive tract, such as Activated Carbon, Filter, Smecta, Polysorb.
Quarantine for influenza
Quarantine is a measure aimed at preventing viral diseases. The term of quarantine, depending on the severity of the disease and the number of infected, is an average of one week.
The most frequent quarantine for influenza in schools or kindergartens is due to the fact that the child's immune system is not yet formed and the body can not resist infection.
Quarantine is declared if more than 20 percent of children are absent from the school.
Before the expected epidemic, it is necessary to vaccinate adults and children( with the permission of the parents), to ventilate the premises, disinfect the work surfaces, and avoid a large crowd of people. It is important to remember, during the quarantine period for influenza or ARVI, preventive vaccinations and Mantoux reaction are prohibited.
Prevention measures for the flu
Doctors recommend to strengthen their body and immunity throughout the year by means of hardening, physical education, proper nutrition and intake of vitamins and minerals. The most effective way is vaccination against influenza two to three months before the expected epidemic. In addition, in public places it is necessary to wear protective masks, changing them every three hours.