Foot and mouth disease in humans: incubation period, symptoms, treatment and prevention
Pets for many people are full members of the family. Dogs and cats are daily contacted by both adults and children. In villages, almost every family can be found large cattle, sheep or pigs. However, any of the pets can cause a dangerous infectious disease - foot and mouth disease. People have a serious illness. In today's article, we will dwell in more detail on the main manifestations and methods of its treatment.
Foot and mouth disease is an infectious pathology of the acute course that results from the penetration into the body of a specific virus. Science it is known for more than 400 years, but the causative agent was detected only in 1897 by Frotem and Lefler. Scientists have noticed a similar clinical picture in humans and animals, so they became interested in manifestations of the disease. In both cases,
- was noted in the oral cavity;
- abundant salivation;
- lesion of skeletal muscles and myocardium;
- in animals were also affected body parts, devoid of wool cover.
The causative agent of foot and mouth disease in humans is a virus belonging to the genus of aphthaviruses. It can be safely attributed to a group of microorganisms extremely resistant to external factors. The virus can not be eliminated by means of disinfectants, drying or freezing. It retains activity in soil and water. Destruction occurs only under prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays or when heated with simultaneous treatment with solutions of alkalis.
Pathways of infection of
Foot and mouth disease chooses primarily a pair of ungulates for domestic animals( goats, pigs, horses, sheep).There have also been cases of transmission of infection by human contact with cats, dogs, rabbits and rats. Outbreaks of the disease occur in the form of an epidemic. Already recovered individuals can repeatedly become carriers of the virus and transmit it to others.
People with FMD can be called a professional ailment. The chances of catching them are especially high among workers employed in the agricultural sector and monitoring cattle. We are talking about veterinarians, milkmaids, cleaning people in pens.
There are several variants of transmission of the virus from animal to human:
- straight( when caring for a sick animal and through abrasions or cuts on the skin);
- through objects that have been affected by stool or saliva of sick individuals.
Infection can occur with the use of raw milk or meat obtained from unhealthy sheep or pigs. This type of infection is considered the most common and accounts for up to 65% of all cases.
Features of the pathogenesis of
The virus of foot and mouth disease enters the human body through mucosal tissues or micro-trauma on the skin. In the area of the entrance gate, an aphtha is formed - small sores. The incubation period of foot and mouth disease in humans lasts from 2 to 6 days( in rare cases this time stretches to 10 days).At the end of the virus enters the blood and begins to spread throughout the body.
After a while, it again falls on the mucosa of the mouth, resulting in it there are aphthae and vesicles. The cavities have a diameter of at least 5 cm and are filled with serous secretions. Vesicles can be found not only in the oral cavity, but also on the skin around the nail, between the fingers and toes.
The onset of the disease usually occurs in an acute form. Patients complain of chills. After about 3-4 hours, a sharp increase in temperature to 39 degrees is observed. The symptoms of foot and mouth disease in humans at this stage are also manifested by headache, decreased appetite and muscle discomfort.
A little later the clinical picture changes and is supplemented by the following violations:
- burning sensation in the oral cavity;
- severe pain when chewing food;
- aphthous eruptions on mucous membranes;
- signs of inflammation in the mouth;
- abundant salivation.
The high temperature is usually maintained for 5-6 days. When the initial manifestations of fever subsided, a blood test shows an increase in the number of eosinophils.
The disease of FMD in an adult man is transferred quite easily. However, it is very difficult to cope with it with a child's body. Rashes on mucous membranes are much more plentiful, and painful sensations are stronger. With weakened immunity, the gastrointestinal tract is involved in the pathological process, which is accompanied by a digestive disorder.
Methods of diagnosis
In humans, the symptoms of foot and mouth disease are difficult to confuse with manifestations of other pathologies. The disease has a pronounced clinical picture. On the other hand, somewhat complicates the diagnosis of the presence of erased forms of the disease and the similarity of its symptoms with other disorders. For example, foot and mouth disease can be confused with chicken pox, erythema and herpetic stomatitis. In any case, when an ailment occurs, you need to seek help from a doctor.
The diagnosis of the disease begins with an examination of the patient and a study of his anamnesis. A specialist can ask a number of clarifying questions to get the complete picture. For example, whether in the recent past there was contact with sick animals, whether the patient used raw milk, in which area he lives, etc. Additionally, laboratory tests are being performed:
- blood and stool tests;
- serological reactions for the detection of antibodies to the pathogen in the blood.
If the preliminary diagnosis is confirmed, the patient is subject to mandatory hospitalization. In the profile department of the hospital, he must spend at least 2 weeks under the supervision of doctors. Specific treatment of pathology is not provided. The standard course of therapy is aimed at arresting the first signs of foot and mouth disease in humans, preventing the development of complications.
For the normalization of the patient's condition and relief of unpleasant symptoms, the following groups of medicines are used:
- Antiviral agents for topical use( Bonafon, Vivorax).
- Antiseptic sprays( Miramistin, Oracept).They prevent the attachment of a secondary infection.
- Antiviral medications for internal use( Acyclovir, Kagocel, Ingavirin).Such drugs are used as part of complex therapy.
- Antihistamines( Suprastin, Tavegil).Such drugs are prescribed for the prevention of allergic reactions.
Symptomatic therapy may also be prescribed, which includes taking antipyretic and analgesic medications( Panadol, Nurofen).In case of bacterial infection, antibiotics are prescribed. In general strengthening purposes, vitamin complexes are used.
Various physiotherapy procedures help to remove inflammation and significantly accelerate the healing of affected areas. For example, the laser shows excellent results. Treatment of foot and mouth disease in humans with its help is carried out only in a hospital. First, the doctor applies a solution of methylene blue to the diseased areas, and then he acts the laser beam for 5 minutes. The standard course of treatment includes up to 10 procedures.
In humans, FMD is always accompanied by a lesion of the mucous membranes. To eliminate such a disorder, aerosol therapy is used. Thanks to advance electrification, drugs are much longer in the tissues. The medicines themselves enter the body in the form of aerosols.
In humans, FMD has a favorable prognosis for recovery. With proper care and treatment of traces on the skin from wounds does not remain. In medical practice, cases of severe course of the pathological process are known. As a rule, they are found in young children. Later diagnosing an illness in this category of patients can lead to complications and even death.
Lack of timely hospitalization and neglect of prescribed therapy can lead to negative consequences. Foot and mouth disease in a person can provoke inflammation of the heart muscle, lungs. In some cases, sepsis develops.
After the infection, the patient develops a so-called type-specific immunity. This is a natural immunity to the virus. Its duration depends on many factors, including the presence of antibodies in the body. As a rule, this period is up to 1.5 years.
Methods of prevention
Prevention of foot and mouth disease is to prevent epidemiological situations in rural areas. At occurrence of symptoms of illness even at one animal strict quarantine is entered. This individual must be isolated and completely disinfected. The treatment is also subject to the means of care, the overalls of the personnel and all working equipment. The special sanitary service is engaged in this issue.
For the prevention of foot and mouth disease, people should strictly follow the safety instructions when working on the farm. At the end of the day, you should definitely wash your hands, and during your working hours - wear special clothes.
Because infection usually occurs through dairy products, doctors strongly recommend that they be consumed only after proper heat treatment. Preparation of meat should be approached with caution. It should be well fried. After cooking, the dishes in which the food was prepared and the hands are important to wash thoroughly.