Blood transfusion: biological test and blood group compatibility table

Blood transfusion is a very complex and dangerous procedure that should be carried out under the strict supervision of doctors and only after a biological sample of the material is made. With her help determine not only the blood group and her rhesus, but also find out whether the patient's blood is compatible with the donor blood.

Biological sample

Features of procedure

Biological sample is carried out in a certain way according to the scheme approved by specialists. In another way, this type of diagnosis is called testing the compatibility of the donor and the patient.

During testing, the patient is injected three times with donor blood. First, 25 ml of raw material are introduced, after which the system is closed. If, within a certain time( 3 minutes), no changes in the patient's condition are observed, then another same dose is administered and again a three-minute break is made. Then inject another 25 ml of blood and pause.

If after the expiration of time in the patient's condition there will be no changes, this indicates that the donor's blood is suitable for him. In the event that the patient begins to restlessly behave, his blood pressure rises, breathing becomes difficult, it can talk about incompatibility.

It is the most dangerous to conduct a blood transfusion to a patient in a coma. In this case, it will be difficult to notice changes in well-being. In this state, incompatibility is manifested by increased heart rate and a drop in blood pressure.

During the biological test, the blood must be poured into the stream. This is a necessary condition that helps prevent the transfusion of large amounts of blood.

Blood sampling

transfusion procedure For a biological sample, disposable sets are used. The system should have detailed instructions for its use. Do not use an open system, as this can lead to the development of a patient's infection.

Before filling out the system, the health care provider must carefully mix blood with the plasma. To do this, the bottle is moved up and down several times. The cap of the bag is treated with alcohol and only after that it is opened. This is done with sterile scissors. While the system is filled with blood, it is necessary to monitor the process. A biological sample with blood transfusion requires constant monitoring by the medical staff of the patient's condition.

Sample Rules

Before starting the transfusion, it is necessary to perform blood sampling at the donor, determine her group and Rh, and conduct similar tests by taking the patient's blood. After that, prepare the material for the sample.

When transfused, they can use the material available in the bank or draw blood from a donor who is invited to give it to a particular patient. If the stocks of the blood bank are taken, then the package is inspected for integrity, the expiry date is checked.

A biological sample with blood transfusion is performed during each procedure, even if the group and the Rh share the same. During this manipulation, the patient's condition is evaluated at each stage of the test. At the end of the transfusion, a special form is filled.

Biological sample with blood transfusion

Before and after the procedure

Before carrying out the biological test, it is necessary to ensure proper storage of the blood collected from the donor. To do this, it is placed in a refrigerator, and before use it is allowed to warm up( at least half an hour).

In emergency transfusion, special warming can be applied on a water bath( the temperature of the blood should not be more than 35 degrees).After this, the material is left in the room at room temperature.

Biological sample before transfusion is performed irrespective of the volume of blood to be injected. Also, samples are made before re-transfusions and when using each new package, even if the blood is used the same.

After the procedure, a bag of the remaining blood is stored for at least three days. In the event of deterioration of the patient's health, doctors will be able to identify the cause and quickly provide the necessary assistance in full.

Do not add other medications to the bloodstream. It is allowed only the use of sodium chloride, but only as a supplement and according to an individual scheme.

Carrying out a biological test

Compatibility of

There is a table of compatibility of blood transfusion in which the material of which group and rhesus is suitable for the patient is displayed.

Compatibility table

Recipient

Donor

0( I) Rhesus negative.

0( I) Rhesus sex.

A( II) Rhesus ner.

A( II) Rhesus sex.

B( III) Rh rhesus.

B( III) Rhesus sex.

AB( IV) rhesus otrits.

AB( IV) Rh rhesus sex.

0( I) Rhesus nits.

+

0( I) Rhesus sex.

+

+

A( II) Rh rhesus.

+

+

A( II) Rhesus sex.

+

+

+

+

B( III) Rh rhesus.

+

+

B( III) Rhesus sex.

+

+

+

+

AB( IV) Rh rhesus is negative.

+

+

+

+

AB( IV) Rhesus sex.

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Patient's condition after transfusion

After the procedure, the patient must ensure that bed rest for several hours. Hourly, the body temperature is measured, blood pressure is monitored, urination is assessed. If the urine is painted red, then this indicates a hemolysis.

To prevent serious violations, take a blood and urine sample the day after the transfusion. If the tests show a norm, then you can safely conduct a repeat procedure. Follow-up observations of the patient in the specialist are assigned individually and depend on the patient's health and his pathology.

Blood transfusion compatibility table

In case of serious ailments, supervision is carried out regularly in the hospital. Mandatory surrender of urine, UAC.At the same time, diagnostics for leukopenia and other pathological manifestations is carried out.

You can not release the patient immediately after the procedure. Ideally, if everything went well, the patient should stay under medical supervision for at least 24 hours, at the latest, patients are released earlier, but not less than three hours after the transfusion.