Erosion of the stomach: etiology and pathogenesis
Gastric erosion is a fairly common disease characterized by the formation of erosion on the surface of the gastric mucosa. These defects appear due to superficial necrosis. When they are healing, a connective tissue scar is not formed. Erosion of the stomach is a conventional nosological term that combines chronic recurrent destructive processes in the gastric mucosa. Sometimes it manifests itself as a symptom of gastritis. Therefore, in the literature very often this disease is called an erosive gastritis of the stomach.
The main causes of the disease are extreme environmental factors that constantly act on the human body. These stress factors( burns, frostbite, injuries, shock, polytrauma) cause violations of the neurohumoral mechanisms of the regulation of many organs, in particular, trophic and secretory functions of the stomach and intestines, reduce the resistance of the organism. There is also a genetic predisposition to the disease. Erosion of the stomach can also occur with the use of medications( nitrofurans, corticosteroids, ethacrynic acid, veroshpiron, tolbutamide), alcohol abuse, and endocrine system diseases( diabetes, hyperparathyroidism).
Many believe that erosive gastritis occurs due to the pathogenic effect of Campylobacter( Helicobacter pylori) on the human body. The facts showed that 95% of people with duodenal ulcers were infected with this type of campylobacteria, but patients with such ulcer make up only 1-6% of all people infected with this pathogen.
Stomach erosion: pathogenesis( development of the disease)
Under the influence of stress factors in the body there are complex and interrelated biochemical processes that are accompanied by a violation of the nervous and humoral mechanisms of the regulation of the functions of all body systems, especially the stomach and intestines. The secretion of adrenal and histamine cortex hormones increases, which increase the secretion of gastric juice with an increase in the activity of pepsin and the content of free hydrochloric acid. At the same time, the secretion and viscosity of mucus decreases, which reduces the protective function of the mucous membrane. In addition, there are spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the stomach and intestines, the permeability of the capillaries increases, trophism of the tissues is disrupted, which subsequently leads to inflammatory reactions, the formation of erosions and ulcers of the gastric mucosa. One should also take into account the direct action of harmful toxic substances on the mucous membrane. Thus, in the pathogenesis of gastric erosion, the key link is the discrepancy between the barrier function of the mucosa and the destructive capacity of gastric or intestinal contents. Given the number of blood vessels, bleeding occurs in the area in the ulcer. With this disease develop persistent functional disorders of the stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas and other organs and systems.
Most often( 30-90%) in young people, the disease passes without specific signs. Sometimes there is heartburn, belching sour, rarely there can be pain in the stomach. The chronic course of erosive gastritis manifests itself with characteristic clinical signs. About 80% of patients complain of heartburn, belching, pain in the right upper quadrant, flatulence, diarrhea and constipation.
Those who have been diagnosed with erosive gastritis of the stomach should follow a diet aimed at reducing the activity of gastric juice. To achieve this goal, you need to eat right. First and foremost, a diet with erosion of the stomach involves the rejection of coarse-fiber foods, which is rich in cellulose( radish, wiry meat, turnips, bran bread, etc.).You can not eat fried foods. You should refrain from drinking alcohol, soda, citrus, coffee, black bread, and cold and hot food.