Syndrome of bronchial obstruction( bronchospastic syndrome): causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Pathologies of the respiratory system are a fairly common problem of modern man. Viruses and bacteria, poor air quality, smoking, an abundance of all sorts of flavors gradually disrupt the vital function. This leads to acute or chronic diseases, which cause signs of suffocation and worsening of the general condition.
Syndrome of bronchial obstruction is a pathological process in which there is a narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi, their inflammation and the release of a large amount of viscous sputum.
This condition is not inherent in a specific disease. This is a symptom reflecting that in the human body there are certain problems, and not necessarily from the respiratory system.
A dangerous spasm can occur at any age, but the most severe course is observed in children and the elderly.
In most cases, the diagnosis of obstructive disease is not difficult, but the cause can not always be determined quickly.
Pathology is prone to severe illness. If untimely assistance is provided, it can be fatal due to suffocation. Prolonged progression is fraught with the development of pathologies on the part of the cardiovascular system.
Why does the violation occur?
To the factors causing the inflammatory process of the bronchial mucosa, it is possible to attribute:
- action of allergens;
- penetration of pathogenic microorganisms;
- poor ecology;
- work in hazardous industries;
- bad habits;
- insufficient air humidity.
There are a lot of diseases accompanied by complaints about shortness of breath. The most common include:
- various bronchitis( acute, chronic, obstructive);
- ulcerative lesion of the gastric mucosa;
- pneumonia of any etiology;
- congenital defects of the respiratory system;
- presence of mechanical obstructions( tumors, cysts);
- cystic fibrosis;
- pulmonary emphysema;
- bronchial dysplasia;
- pathology of the cardiovascular system;
- hernia of the spine;
- affection of the nervous system;
- of the brain tumor;
- invasive infections;
In the body everything is connected, and a violation in the work of one body will certainly lead to the development of secondary pathological processes, so any illness must be treated without complications.
How to recognize dangerous signs?
Symptoms of bronchial obstruction syndrome directly depend on the form in which it occurs. It can be:
Classical features include:
- Sensation of lack of air.
- Heaviness with exhalation and inspiration.
- Shortness of breath. Blue nasolabial triangle.
- Chest expansion.
- Inflammation of the cervical veins.
- Loss of consciousness.
To prevent death, such patients require emergency medical care.
In mild cases, the patient may not even guess about the presence of dangerous changes in the structure of the bronchial tree. Often, the pathology is diagnosed accidentally, with routine fluorography or X-ray( in the presence of acute respiratory disease or suspected pneumonia).
Persons with relatives suffering from bronchospasm should know how to behave at the beginning of another attack.
Course of the disease in children
Syndrome of bronchial obstruction can be observed in infants or toddlers of the older age group. The pathological condition is accompanied by:
- with a strong cough;
- shortness of breath;
- whistling, mainly on exhalation. Most often it happens:
- as a reaction to an allergen( food or inhaled);
- in ARI, ARVI or influenza.
Less common are congenital malformations of the bronchopulmonary system.
If there are no such anomalies, then at initial stages, the spasms of the respiratory system are safely treated. Running forms cause irreversible changes in the bronchial tree, and the pathology becomes chronic.
As the child progresses:
- has periodic attacks of suffocation;
- cyanosis of the skin;
- dark circles under the eyes;
- swelling of the cervical veins.
Such conditions are extremely dangerous. If the help is not provided in time, the child may suffocate.
Bronchospasm in pregnancy
Some women diagnose bronchial obstruction syndrome for the first time during the period of gestation. This is due to various changes in the body. The hormonal background changes, immunity decreases.
These are favorable conditions for the penetration of infections that cause prolonged inflammation of the respiratory system, and as a consequence obstructive disease.
The problem is complicated by a narrow range of drugs allowed during pregnancy. The question of treatment of bronchial obstruction syndrome in this case is solved individually. Means that are forbidden to future mothers can be prescribed if there is a real threat to the life of a woman.
If you are addicted to allergies, you will definitely be prescribed antihistamines, because this factor plays an important role in the development of bronchospasm.
Those who have previously encountered a violation of bronchial patency, may note an increase or decrease in the frequency of seizures or their complete disappearance.
The independent selection of medicines is strictly forbidden. This can adversely affect the health of the mother or child.
If you have any anxiety symptoms, you should always consult a doctor. The treatment of such pathologies is:
A correct diagnosis is not difficult. At the initial reference specialist:
- will collect all necessary information;
- will inspect;
- will give direction to the necessary studies.
The usual radiographic image will reveal obstruction. To determine its cause, the following laboratory tests will be required:
- general and biochemical blood test;
- sputum culture;
- scraping for helminths or PCR diagnostics.
During the survey, the list can be supplemented by other methods at the doctor's discretion.
Most often, an asthma attack occurs at night. If this happens for the first time, you should always call an ambulance.
Prior to the arrival of physicians should:
- Try to eliminate the allergen, which provoked a pathological condition. It can be medicines, dust, pollen, wool of domestic animals.
- Rinse patient with mouth, nose to partially eliminate irritant from mucous membranes.
- Put a person on the bed( do not stack).Relieve the chest from tight clothing.
- Open the window for fresh air.
- If the condition rapidly deteriorates, and doctors still do not, you need to use any bronchodilator, such as a can of "Ventolin".
Strongly not allowed:
- rubbing the patient with balsams, honey, vinegar;
- self-administration of medications, especially antitussive;
- placing the patient in a horizontal position.
At the initial attack a person will be recommended hospitalization, especially if it is a child up to 3 years. To refuse it is not necessary, after all after reception of the necessary help the attack often repeats.
If bronchospasm occurs earlier, then the relatives of the patient should always have an aerosol with salbutamol or another prescribed by the doctor at hand.
When restoring the function of breathing, you do not need to call an ambulance, but the doctor is worth visiting soon. If the medicine does not help, emergency help will still be needed.
Treatment of symptoms of bronchospasm in adults should be performed as soon as possible.
The basis for successful therapy is the elimination of provoking factors. For this, the following can be used:
- antiviral agents;
- antiparasitic medicines.
Direct elimination of bronchospasm is performed:
To improve the respiratory function, the therapy is supplemented:
- with mucolytic agents( Ambroxol, Acetylcysteine);
- glucocorticoids( "Prednisolone", "Pulmicort").
Dosage is selected individually, taking into account the state of health and age of the patient.
Any aerosol with salbutamol is considered the best way to stop an attack at home.
In particularly severe cases, surgical procedures are resorted to. Such treatment is required by bronchospasm caused by mechanical obstructions, such as:
- benign and malignant tumors;
- congenital defects of the bronchi and lungs.
The operation is performed by several methods:
- Eliminate the neoplasm.
- Detach the lung or part of it.
- Transplant the organ.
If the bronchospastic syndrome is provoked by a cancer disease, then an oncologist is connected to the treatment, which will monitor the process and select a further scheme.
How to get rid of sputum in the bronchi? This issue is of concern to many patients. Often, doctors prefer a comprehensive approach in eliminating this problem and appoint patients:
- warming up;
Their main advantage is the almost complete absence of contraindications. Such physiotherapy can be carried out for young children, pregnant and lactating women.
Doctors recommend that all patients suffering from airway obstruction purchase a modern inhalation device - a nebulizer. It acts on the principle of cleavage of the drug into small particles using an integrated compressor. Due to this, the drug easily enters the most inaccessible areas of the bronchi.
In pharmacies, you can purchase ready-made solutions for this apparatus based on salbutamol, ambroxol, fenoterol.
Regular inhalation with saline or mineral water "Borjomi" is beneficial for respiratory organs.
The outflow of viscous sputum can be improved, thanks to special occupations. Most often, the Strelnikov exercises are used:
- In the standing position, slightly tilt the body forward, taking a deep breath in the nose, then lift the trunk and breathe out freely with the mouth. After 8 approaches try to clear your throat.
- In the same position, the arms bend at the elbows. When inhaled, they cross over, on exhalation return to the initial position.
No less effective is breathing exercises, it consists of deep breaths through the nose and exhalations with a change in body position.
For example, lying on a bed roll over on one side. Make several approaches, clear up. Repeat on the other side, on the stomach, back.
Any motor activity allows better output of phlegm.
A child can be offered a game. He lays down on the bed or sofa, so that the trunk slightly hangs down, then ask to sing a merry little song. The parent at this moment makes a slight tapping on the back of the baby. As a result, there are vibrations that promote the release of viscous matter from the lumen of the bronchi.
Any gymnastics for improving the outflow of sputum is recommended for no more than 5 minutes. People who regularly suffer from respiratory diseases are shown a daily set of exercises.
Physicians have proved that it is always necessary to breathe air through the nose. This not only contributes to the elimination of stagnation, but also favorably affects the body as a whole.
Alternative methods of
Before getting rid of sputum in the bronchi, you need to find out the cause of the problem, but many people often disregard this advice, continuing to conduct experiments on their health.
The most common use of folk remedies based on the collection of expectorant herbs and honey, which are on the list of the strongest allergens.
With bronospazme such treatment is prohibited, because often only worsens the condition.
Often, a panacea for all diseases people consider the science of treatment "similar to".
Representatives of classical medicine oppose homeopathic treatment, since they consider it to be ineffective, which was officially proven in early 2017.
The positive effect of "magic peas" is no more than a placebo. Some diseases they are really treated, based on self-hypnosis. These include various depressions, neuroses, hypochondria.
In the case of an obstructive condition, there is a serious functional impairment that threatens life, therefore the use of homeopathy is unacceptable.
Treatment of symptoms of bronchospasm in adults is required to be carried out immediately, and the use of such drugs leads to the transition of the underlying disease to a chronic form, deterioration or even death.
Prophylaxis and prognosis
Every year, bronchospastic syndrome is diagnosed more and more often and can occur in anyone. To minimize this risk, you must:
- quit smoking;
- do not use electronic cigarettes;
- if possible move to live closer to the sea;
- abandon the abundance of flavored household chemicals;
- monitor your health, if there are allergy symptoms to undergo examination and identify potentially dangerous substances;
- strengthen its immunity( more to move, temper, adjust diet);
- to avoid stress, it is good to get enough sleep;
- in case of complaints, consult a doctor, do not allow chronic processes;
- daily perform breathing exercises.
You can not treat bronchial obstruction syndrome lightly. This is a really dangerous symptom, capable of depriving a person of life in a few minutes. At the first sign of a breathing disorder, you should visit a specialist and take a survey. In acute cases, call an ambulance. In the early stages, most obstructions are treated well. Therefore, do not postpone the problem for later.