Jaundice in newborns: causes and consequences, diagnosis and treatment
Parents are very sensitive to the health of their children. Especially when it comes to newborns. But what if the crumb, newly born, was diagnosed with a strange "jaundice"?Do not be scared of this word, because most often it characterizes the natural physiological process taking place in a young organism. So, let's analyze what the yellowing of newborns is. The causes and consequences of this phenomenon are set forth in the article.
Characteristics of the state
Jaundice in newborns, the causes and consequences of which are not clear to parents, causes some panic in moms. Therefore, from the outset, we will analyze what it is.
To understand why the skin of the child acquires an orange tinge, it is necessary to remember the course of anatomy.
Human blood contains red cells. Their main function is to spread oxygen throughout the body. Such cells live for several months. Then they are destroyed. In the course of their disintegration, a specific pigment is produced in the body, which has a yellow color, bilirubin.
This substance is rendered harmless by the liver, after which it is removed from the human body. However, if the level of the pigment is increased, then failures can occur. It is in this case that there is such a phenomenon as the jaundice. Bilirubin is not completely eliminated from the body and colors the skin of the skin in yellow.
For an adult, this is a signal about the occurrence of serious diseases, which are based on the destruction of the liver. But for a newborn such a condition is a physiological, normal process. After all, the body crumbs only learns to function independently.
Causes of icterus
Similar condition is observed in almost 60% of newborn crumbs. The jaundice appears, as a rule, on the 2-3rd day after birth. It is more pronounced in preterm infants.
Above we have considered the mechanism of occurrence of such phenomenon, as a jaundice in newborns. The causes and consequences of this condition require more detailed study.
Jaundice occurs as a result of the following factors:
- Newborn infants in the blood contain an excess of red blood cells. In addition, red cells decay much faster than in an adult. That is why the baby is observed destruction of a large number of red blood cells, resulting in the formation of free bilirubin.
- It was said above that the pigment is excreted by the liver. To bilirubin out of the body, he must contact this body. In the case of a crumb, the liver is not yet fully capable of providing such a transformation.
- Bilirubin undergoes metamorphosis in the intestines under the action of normal microflora, and then is excreted in urine and feces. But, again, the children's organism only learns to adapt to independent functioning. The intestine is gradually colonized with microflora. That is why immediately withdraw bilirubin from the body, he is not able to.
As a result, the infant develops a physiological icterus. This is absolutely not a dangerous condition for crumbs. But sometimes a newborn can show a pathological icicle. In this case, the infant needs adequate treatment.
Sources of pathological condition
Doctors claim that the causes of such a jaundice can be hidden in the following:
- there is incompatibility of blood of the child and mother in a group or Rh factor;
- the infant's liver does not function properly;
- the kid has underdeveloped bile ducts;
- in the child's liver inflammation occurs.
Symptoms of physiological jaundice
The characteristics of the natural physiological process are the following:
- The icterus manifests itself no sooner than 36 hours after the baby appears on the light.
- The maximum expression it reaches on the 3rd-5th day.
- Yellowing of the face, neck and chest skin is observed. Cushions below the navel do not acquire an orange tinge.
- A blood test shows high bilirubin. However, the level does not exceed 205 μmol / l.
- Child's behavior is active. State of health, the general condition is not violated.
It is important to remember when the jelly in the newborn passes. In term infants, bilirubin begins to decrease on day 14.This is an important indicator that characterizes precisely the physiological process. In premature babies, bilirubin goes down to the 21st day.
However, it should be understood that sometimes there may be some deviations from the above norms. And while they do not always indicate the development in the body of a phenomenon such as pathological icicles.
Komarowski claims that premature infants may experience an earlier manifestation of this condition. Often, these children yellowing occurs on the second day of life. In addition, Dr. Komarovsky points out that twins or children whose mothers have diabetes can experience a protracted jaundice.
All babies must be observed. Sometimes the physiological jaundice can go into a pathological form. And the latter condition requires timely treatment.
Signs of the pathological condition of
What are the symptoms that indicate a problem in the child's body? Unfortunately, the boundary between the pathological and physiological jaundice is very unstable. But still there are differences between them.
The pathological condition can be suspected by the following features:
- Jaundice occurs within the first 24 hours after birth.
- Skin coloration in the yellow shade can be observed on the 7th day of the baby's life.
- The blood test shows not only the high bilirubin, but also its rapid increase. A daily rate of more than 85 μmol / l is observed.
- The baby's skin is colored yellow not only above, but also below the navel. Yellowness of the palms, feet.
- The general condition of the baby is broken. The child is agitated or depressed.
- The urine of the crumb turns dark, and the stool becomes colorless.
- The jaundice in the child is tightened and can be undulating.
What is the basis of pathology?
A similar condition is capable of provoking the following factors:
- prematurity, infant immaturity;
- delay in fetal development during the intrauterine period;
- receiving mother of many drugs during pregnancy and childbirth;
- extensive hemorrhage, cephalohematoma;
- absence of breastfeeding;
- large loss of weight to newborns;
- is a dolactational feeding with a mixture.
And do not forget when there is a jaundice in newborns. The physiological process should not last more than 21 days. Therefore, if your baby after the above time and remains yellow, be sure to see a doctor.
Jaundice in newborns is most often a physiological condition. Therefore, it passes by itself, without any treatment and does not leave any consequences after itself.
But if the jaundice does not pass a month, or there are other signs indicating a pathological phenomenon, then a small patient needs adequate therapy.
Every day the state of the crumbs is deteriorating. The skin of the baby becomes a greenish shade, the size of the liver and spleen can increase.
Serious complications can develop without medical care:
- Toxic poisoning of the brain, nervous system.
- A high level of bilirubin can lead to a decrease in albumin, resulting in the development of albuminemia.
- If the pigment penetrates the brain, then the crumb will develop nuclear jaundice. This pathology can lead to deafness, frequent seizures, infant retardation in mental development.
- The late stage of the disease is characterized by involuntary contractions of muscle tissue. The child may lose control of the motor functions.
At the same time, if the pathological condition is detected at early stages and timely treatment is carried out, then unpleasant consequences usually do not arise.
Diagnosis of the
state One skin tone is not enough to confirm the presence of a jaundice. To make a diagnosis, a baby is given a test:
- urine, blood test;
- study of pigment level in serum and blood;
If necessary, the baby is referred for consultation to the endocrinologist, surgeon, cardiologist.
Treatment of an infant
Many pediatricians, both domestic and foreign, claim that in most cases a newborn does not need medication.
A jaundice lasting about three weeks is not a disease. Therefore, this condition does not need treatment. A completely different picture is observed if the jaundice is characterized as a symptom of a serious ailment. The baby needs adequate therapy if bilirubin reaches a dangerous level in the body, and furthermore continues to grow.
Treatment of icterus depends on the level of pigment, the condition of the baby, the cause of the development of pathology.
The following activities can be assigned to a child:
- blood transfusion( if there is a high risk of developing a nuclear jelly).
Phototherapy for babies
The easiest, but effective method, which allows to treat a yellowish one, is light therapy. Today it is very successfully practiced in almost all clinics.
For phototherapy, a special lamp is used from the jelly. The waves emitted by it stimulate the process of splitting bilirubin into non-toxic compounds. The latter after intensive therapy, lasting about 10-12 hours, are excreted from the body of the crumbs naturally( with urine and feces).
This method allows you to abandon the medication. In addition, he does not require the separation of the child from the mother. Consequently, breastfeeding is not interrupted.
The duration of phototherapy, as a rule, takes about 96 hours.
If the level of bilirubin significantly exceeds the boundary value, or the effect of phototherapy is insignificant, the baby is prescribed medicines.
Drug therapy consists of:
- Of choleretic preparations. Recommended remedies that improve the functioning of the liver and remove from the body excess bile. The newborn is prescribed medicines: Ursofalk, Hofitol. Both one and the second medication are allowed for use from the first days of life. However, the drug "Hofitol" is preferable, since the drug "Ursofalk" contains many additional components( preservatives, flavorings) that can provoke an allergy.
- Sorbents. Preparations bind toxic substances, slags and remove them from a small organism. The newborn can be prescribed drugs "Smecta", "Enterosgel", activated charcoal. As a rule, preference is given to the first medicine. From the drug "Smecta", produced in the form of powder, it is easy to make a suspension for the baby. In addition, this natural sorbent is absolutely safe for babies.
- Vitamin Complexes.
If the child has a physiological yellowing, then, as mentioned above, the infant does not need therapy. Therefore, mother and baby will be discharged from the hospital home. However, you can help the baby to cope faster with such a condition.
Treatment of jelly at home includes such activities:
- Solar baths. Give the child the opportunity to sunbathe. The sun is the best healer. Under its influence, bilirubin is destroyed. But remember that a small one should not stay under direct sunlight for a long time, so that burns do not appear on the tender baby skin.
- Food Diet. Nursing mother should closely monitor their food. It is recommended to completely exclude food from food, which has a pronounced taste. Refuse the pickles, smoked products. It is better to base your diet on vegetables, fruits. Do not forget about the drinking regime. A lactating woman needs to drink about 2 liters of water per day.
- Broth of dog rose. The drink perfectly normalizes digestion and stimulates the release of harmful substances. The broth can be consumed by the mother herself. A drink is also allowed for babies.
Now you know what the jaundice is in newborns. The causes and consequences of this condition are also known to you. Most often, orange skin tones indicate a natural phenomenon. Despite this, the baby needs careful monitoring. With any worsening, you must immediately react. Only this way you can protect your baby from serious consequences.