How to properly donate blood to cholesterol: preparation and interpretation
Most people believe that cholesterol is a dangerous substance for the body. Indeed, its excess has a negative impact on health, but the lack of anything good does not. Each person needs to donate blood annually for the study of cholesterol level in order to detect deviations from normal indices. Below we will talk about how to properly donate blood to cholesterol and decipher the result of the analysis.
Cholesterol - an irreplaceable substance for the body
It is fundamentally incorrect that cholesterol has only a harmful effect. This fat-like substance( "fatty bile" in the literal translation) envelops all the cellular membranes of the body, protecting them from adverse factors.
Without cholesterol, brain work is impossible - it is a significant part of white and gray substances. The nerve fiber shell also contains cholesterol. Through participation in the production of hormones, it is necessary for the full work of the adrenal and reproductive system.
Cholesterol is partially synthesized by the body, the remainder comes with food.
"Good" and "bad" cholesterol
Physicians divide the cholesterol into useful and harmful because of the heterogeneity of its composition:
- "good" has a high density, it does not settle on the walls of the vessels, i.e. does not provoke the occurrence of cholesterol plaques;
- "bad" has a low density and can lead to the formation of plaques, as a result of which the walls of the vessels are injured, their lumen is significantly reduced.
How does it turn out that cholesterol is both useful and harmful? It is transported from the blood to the tissues of organs with the help of special proteins - lipoproteins. These proteins also have different densities, the quality of cholesterol transfer depends on this. Proteins of low density can not completely transfer it - part of the cholesterol remains in the vessels.
Who needs to monitor the cholesterol levels of
Cholesterol should always remain normal. Its deficit is reflected in the mental state, and the excess provokes the occurrence of serious illnesses or complicates the current.
Taking a blood test for cholesterol is an important point of health monitoring. It is recommended to take an analysis every year in order to prevent the development of serious ailments in a timely manner.
Persons at risk for high levels of harmful cholesterol:
- obese, prone to a set of excess weight;
- having diseases of the heart, blood vessels, liver, kidneys, thyroid gland;
- with a sedentary and sedentary lifestyle;
- having diabetes mellitus;
- women in menopause;
- people of advanced age.
How often to take an analysis for cholesterol to people belonging to a category, should be decided by the doctor in each case after a thorough examination.
analysis The knowledge of how to correctly pass blood to cholesterol depends on the result of the analysis. This is actually very important. To obtain an accurate picture, special attention should be paid to the preparation for the analysis of blood for cholesterol:
- During the week preceding the study, do not eat fatty and fried foods, alcohol. Strictly forbidden to eat: foods containing animal fats, cheese, sausage, egg yolk.
- At least 2-3 days to exclude the possibility of stress: overload at work, nervous breakdowns. It is also recommended to postpone visiting rides, carrying out hardening procedures, unwanted hiking in the sauna and sauna.
Blood sampling is carried out on an empty stomach, the last meal should be 12 hours before the test.
On the day of donating blood for analysis of
Before you donate blood for cholesterol analysis, you need to refrain from smoking for at least 4 hours. At the same time, the use of carbonated drinks, juices, fruit drinks, tea, coffee, etc. is prohibited. It is allowed to drink clean water without gas.
In order for the result to be as reliable as possible, it is not enough to follow the recommendations on how to properly donate blood to cholesterol and prepare for analysis. An emotional state is of no small importance. Before the procedure you need to sleep, and for half an hour before giving blood to relax and think about the pleasant.
Blood is taken from the vein, so you need to take care of comfortable clothes in advance.
Normal values of cholesterol in the blood
Unit of measurement of blood cholesterol is mmol / l. It is one of the 3 main units of laboratory research and shows the atomic( molecular) mass of cholesterol per 1 liter of blood.
The minimum amount of cholesterol in the blood is 2.9 units, it is detected in children at birth, as it grows, it increases.
The amount of cholesterol in men and women is different. In addition, in women, the rate is increasing slowly, and in men it rises sharply in adolescence and middle age. With the onset of menopause in women, the amount of cholesterol is rapidly increasing and becomes much larger than in men of the same age. That's why the onset of menopause is a good reason to donate blood for research.
The normal range of cholesterol in the blood in women is 3.5-7 units, in men - 3.3-7.8 units.
If the study shows abnormalities, it is necessary to donate blood to an extended analysis of the amount of lipoproteins showing the ratio of "good" and "bad" cholesterol.
The norm of low-density proteins: in men - 2,3-4,7 units, in women - 1,9-4,4 units;high: for men - 0,74-1,8 units, for women - 0,8-2,3 units.
In addition, the amount of triglycerides, substances taking part in the cholesterol metabolism, is also measured, the unit of measurement is also mmol / L.Their number should not exceed 0.6-3.6 units.in men and 0.5-2.5 units.among women.
The final step is to calculate the coefficient of atherogenicity: the ratio of "good" and "bad" is subtracted from the total cholesterol. If the result is not more than 4, it is considered that the state of cholesterol metabolism is normal.
Important! Indicators may have minor deviations, which may be the norm - each person has their own individuality.
Increased cholesterol - what should I do?
If the results of blood tests for cholesterol showed a total of more than 5.0 mmol / l, and "bad" cholesterol is greater than "good", it is customary to talk about hypercholesterolemia. It is important to regularly take tests, because at the initial stage the disease is not manifested.
Over time, there are symptoms that indicate the progression of the disease:
- shortness of breath;
- chest pain;
- temporary loss of vision;
- memory dips;
- spots on the skin are yellow.
If cholesterol is elevated in the blood test, it is important to rethink the lifestyle and change the diet.
- fatty meat products;
- egg yolk;
- high-fat milk;
- fast food;
- crackers, crisps.
It is necessary to focus on the content of saturated fats in foods, and not on cholesterol, because the human liver synthesizes "bad" cholesterol from them.
To reduce the cholesterol it is recommended to regularly eat:
- leguminous crops;
- red fruits and vegetables;
- olive oil;
A healthy lifestyle, a balanced diet and adequate rest will solve the problem of increased cholesterol.
Lowered cholesterol level
A cholesterol reading below 3.0 mmol / L poses a serious health hazard.
With its reduced content, the vessels are weakened and torn - this is the main cause of hemorrhages leading to death. Nerve fibers are deprived of a strong protective shell, which threatens with depression, dementia, chronic fatigue, aggression.
People who have a lowered level of cholesterol are more susceptible to oncological diseases and mortality for various reasons.
Hypocholesterolemia increases the risk of alcohol and drug addiction by 5 times. This is due to the fact that the level of cholesterol depends on the psycho-emotional state of a person, which can lead even to suicide.
The problem of cholesterol deficiency is very serious. First and foremost, it is important to exclude from your life harmful attachments and re-examine gastronomic habits. It is important to follow a diet and not eat foods that are forbidden for high cholesterol. To not bring to excess of "bad" cholesterol, you need to eat greens and nuts more often.
Where to pass the tests for cholesterol
Any laboratory can conduct this analysis. For a free procedure, you need to take a referral from your doctor and make an appointment for blood donation. As a rule, it takes a lot of time, so people often go to private clinics. By appointment( the registrar will always remind you how to donate blood to cholesterol), you can go to a medical clinic and undergo a procedure. The result is usually ready on this day or the next. Independent laboratories also perform blood sampling for cholesterol, most often in the order of the live queue. The choice should be made in favor of the institution, where blood sampling takes place quickly and comfortably, the result is promptly prepared and there is the optimal cost of the study.