Genitourinary system of men: structure. Diseases of the genitourinary system in men

The genitourinary system of a man includes two different structures, functionally and morphologically related to one another. In each of them there are certain bodies that perform certain tasks. Next, let us examine in more detail what is the structure of the genitourinary system of a man. The article will describe the tasks that it performs, as well as some pathologies.

General information

The system includes organs that form and then excrete urine. This is one of the available structures. The second - sexual. She is responsible for reproductive function. The structure of the genitourinary system of a man is similar to that of a woman in the part responsible for purifying blood from accumulated slags. In this zone there are 2 kidneys. These organs have a bean-shaped form. They are aligned with the lumbar( upper) vertebrae. In addition to the kidneys, renal pelvic organs, ureters, bladder and urethra participate in blood purification.

Testicles

The genitourinary system of a man includes these paired organs responsible for the production of spermatozoa and the hormone testosterone. Thanks to this, an attraction is formed. Also hormones affect the formation of sexual characteristics. The organs are formed already in the prenatal period. Initially, they form in the abdominal cavity( upper part of it).Then gradually the organs go into the scrotum. The ability to move, however, remains with them throughout life. This is possible due to muscle contractions. This ability provides reliable protection against sudden effects of temperature fluctuations and physical overvoltage. In some cases, the ovulation of the testicle does not end at the time of birth. This situation can be corrected by surgical methods. If you do not make an intervention and correction until five years, then this is fraught with infertility. Skin receptacle is the scrotum. It provides protection from possible injuries. In the appendage of the testicle, represented as a small canal, sperm cells are located. Here they continue their maturation and gradually acquire the necessary mobility.

Urethra( vas deferens)

This formation is a continuation of the epididymis. Along with the blood vessels of large caliber, the duct forms a seed rope, which has a comparatively long length. He proceeds from the scrotum, walks the inguinal fold in the abdominal cavity to the very base of the prostate. In the area of ​​the prostate gland, the rope expands, passing into the ampoule. In this area there is a congestion of spermatozoa right up to the beginning of ejaculation.

Prostate gland

This body produces a special secret. It helps the spermatozoa keep their activity. In the prostate gland, in addition, the vas deferens and the urethra are combined. Due to the high degree of elasticity of the muscular ring located at the exit from the prostate, the penetration of the sperm into the bladder during ejaculation is excluded. The same is true for another process. During urinary ejaculation, urine does not enter the urethra.

Other components of

The genitourinary system of a man includes seminal vesicles. These are small glands producing a fluid present in the sperm and amounting to about 95% of its total volume. Vesicles have excretory canals. They are combined with the vas deferens. Iron Cooper produces a lubricant that facilitates the movement of sperm during sexual intercourse. This is the general anatomy of the genitourinary system of a man. With the tension of the crotch musculature, complete ejaculation is carried out.

Some diseases of the genitourinary system in men

These are the ailments:

  • Prostate adenoma.
  • Aspermia.
  • Edema of the scrotum.
  • Inflammation of the urogenital system in men( balanoposthitis, for example).
  • Hydrocele( edema of the testicles).
  • Cavity.
  • Cyst of spermatic cord.
  • Cryptozoospermia.
  • Short bridle.
  • Hypospadias.
  • Infertility.

This is the list. This is not all the diseases of the genitourinary system in men. These or other pathologies are caused by various causes. Let's consider some of them further.

Basic triggering factors

Infections of the genitourinary system in men are considered the most common cause of many pathologies. They, in turn, are divided into nonspecific and specific. The first include streptococci, staphylococcus, E. coli, viruses( herpes, acute respiratory infections, influenza, cytomegalovirus, shingles), chlamydia, mycoplasma and others. Among the specific infections are Trichomonas, gonococcus, pale treponemia, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All these microorganisms provoke urethritis, prostatitis, inflammation of the urogenital system in men and other pathologies.

Oncology

This should also be mentioned. These diseases of the genitourinary system in men are caused by an imbalance in the circulation of sex hormones. These violations, in turn, are provoked by age-related changes. Among other factors that increase the risk of development of oncological pathologies, it is necessary to note the genetic predisposition, the large volume of consumed fats of animal origin. More often malignant formations are revealed in representatives of the Negroid race. At the same time, it should be noted that the above factors, as well as smoking, sexual activity, diabetes, hypertension, liver damage are not related to the reasons for developing prostate adenoma.

Other pathologies

Factors provoking testicular tumors - cryptorchidism, trauma, irradiation( ionizing and microwave), phimosis and inflammatory processes of chronic course. The latter should be attributed to stagnation caused by decreased or increased sexual activity. In this case, the latter can be accompanied by interruption of the act, smoking, alcohol abuse. Pathologies of other structures and organs can also provoke diseases of the genitourinary system in men. These include hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes( sugar), depression, neurosis, obesity, trauma and lesions of the spinal cord and spine. Reduction of sexual activity can also be caused by the taking of a number of drugs.

Genitourinary system of a man: symptoms of pathologies

Signs of violations of the structure are conventionally divided by specialists into several categories.

The first group includes changes in the external genitalia, which are detected by palpation and examination. So, for example, during the examination it is easy to detect micropenia( the size of an organ in an erection state is less than 9 cm), megalopenis( as a manifestation of hyperactivity in the adrenal cortex), abnormal penis enlargement( against priapism, if palpation is accompanied by soreness, then trauma is probable)curvature of the trunk( in cases of pain Peyronie syndrome is possible).When examined, there may also be a marked change in the size of the scrotum. The increase, in particular, is two-sided and one-sided. When there is pain in the process of feeling, the probability of an inflammatory process in the testicles or their appendages should be taken into account. If there is no soreness, then this may indicate a hydrocele or elephantiasis. In the absence of both testes in the scrotum, cryptorchidism or agenesis is likely.

The next category of symptoms are common manifestations. To them it is possible, for example, to attribute a fever. With this condition there is a rise in temperature against the background of the inflammatory process. Common signs include weight loss( on the basis of malignant formations), gynecomastia( can act as a consequence of estrogen therapy for prostate cancer).The next common symptom is pain. Against the background of these or other pathologies, it can be localized in the groin area( in the external organs and perineum).With urethritis in acute form, soreness accompanies the process of urination. As a rule, it is excruciating and has a sharp character. Against the background of fibrous induration, aching pain and curvature of the penis are revealed. Another common manifestation of pathologies is a disorder of the urination process. In particular, at night, patients are concerned about frequent desires( against the background of prostate tumors), incontinence( with adenoma), difficulty in emptying, polyuria. Another symptom is the change in the transparency and color of the urine. It can become cloudy. As a rule, this manifestation is characteristic for inflammatory pathologies. Against the background of malignant neoplasms, blood may appear during emptying. Also a symptom is a change in sperm or pathological excretion from the urethra. Pus appears with urethritis. There is a constant or frequent secretion of sperm from the urethra without ejaculation, orgasm, erection( spermatorrhea).With prostatic pathologies, a secret of the prostate often appears after the act of defecation or urination, but without the admixture of spermatozoa( prostatea).

Change in sperm

In 1 ml of ejaculate, normally there are at least 20 million spermatozoa. More than half of them are mobile. When clogging the vas deferens, there is a lack of ejaculation with sexual contact - aspermatism. With insufficient amount( less than 20 million), oligozoospermia is diagnosed. This pathology can develop due to infections, cryptorchidism, hypoplasia or underdevelopment of the testicles. The provoking factors are nicotine, drugs and alcohol. In the case of a smaller number of mobile spermatozoa, astenozoospermia is diagnosed, with the presence of sex cells with insufficient morphology, teratozoospermia is detected. In the absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate against the background of varicocele, atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, inflammation diagnoses azoospermia. In the presence of a normal number of spermatozoa( but not having mobility) and if there is no possibility of their recovery, they speak of necrospermia. Against the background of prostate cancer, vesiculitis is diagnosed with hemospermia. In this case, blood is found in the sperm.

Diagnosis

In the presence of pathologies of inflammatory nature, several studies are assigned. One of them is a blood test. Against the background of inflammation, there will be an increased concentration of leukocytes, an increase in ESR.The analysis of urine will allow to reveal microorganisms - causative agents of pathologies. In the diagnosis of prostate diseases, a special place is occupied by digital transrectal examination. In the course of this procedure, the size of the gland, its contours, the presence / absence of foci of softening / compaction are determined. Together with this, the specialist receives the secret of the prostate, which is also subsequently examined. Endoscopic methods allow you to examine the mucous membrane of the urethra. MRI, CT, X-ray methods of research are widely used. Ultrasound of the urogenital system in men allows to diagnose pathological changes in the prostate, testis and its appendages. Identification of erectile dysfunction is carried out using a sexological test, laboratory studies on hormones, gonadotropic compounds. Also examine the vessels of the penis, conduct cavernography, electromyography. Timely and correct diagnosis allows for the most effective treatment of the genitourinary system in men.

Therapeutic and prophylactic measures

What should I say here? Treatment of the genitourinary system in men is selected strictly individually in each case. Therapeutic measures are aimed at eliminating the causes and alleviating the manifestations of pathology. With severe pain, a specialist can prescribe analgesics or antispasmodics. In case of an infectious lesion, the doctor will recommend an antibiotic. The drug is selected in accordance with the results of tests that identify the pathogen and its sensitivity. In some cases, surgery may be required. As a preventive measure, negative factors, including those contributing to the development of oncology( microwave radiation, for example), should be excluded from everyday life. It is necessary to revise one's regime, abandon bad habits, and eliminate pathologies of other systems and organs. After 40 years, annual preventive examinations are recommended, including laboratory and instrumental diagnostic measures.