Carbohydrates: the importance of which groups are divided into carbohydrates and their role in the human body
Carbohydrates are one of the most important elements necessary to maintain the optimal state of the human body. These are the main energy suppliers, consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are found mainly in products of vegetable origin, namely in sugars, bakery products, whole grains and cereals, potatoes, fiber( vegetables, fruits).It is a mistake to believe that dairy and other predominantly protein foods do not contain carbohydrates. For example, in milk, carbohydrates are also present. They are milk sugar - lactose. From this article you will learn which groups are divided carbohydrates, examples and differences of these carbohydrates, and also you can understand how to calculate their necessary daily rate.
The basic groups of carbohydrates
So, now we will understand, on what groups carbohydrates are divided. Specialists distinguish 3 main groups of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. To understand their differences, consider each group in more detail.
- Monosaccharides - they are simple sugars. In large quantities are contained in grape sugar( glucose), fruit sugars( fructose), etc. Monosugars dissolve in the liquid, giving it a sweet taste.
- Disaccharides are a group of carbohydrates that split into two monosaccharides. They also completely dissolve in water and have a sweet taste.
- Polysaccharides are the last group of complex carbohydrates that do not dissolve in liquids, they do not have a pronounced taste and consist of many monosaccharides. Simply put, these are glucose polymers: we all know starch( reserve plant carbohydrate), cellulose( cell wall of plants), glycogen( reserve carbohydrate of fungi, as well as animals), chitin, peptidoglycan( murine).
In the carbohydrates of which group is most in need of the human body
When considering the question of which groups are divided into carbohydrates, it is worth noting that in most they are contained in products of plant origin. They include a huge amount of vitamins and nutrients, so carbohydrates must be present in the daily diet of every person who leads a healthy and active lifestyle. To provide the body with these substances, it is necessary to consume as much cereal( porridge, bread, bread, etc.), vegetables and fruits.
Glucose, i.e.ordinary sugar is a particularly useful component for a person, since it has a beneficial effect on mental activity. These sugars in the process of digestion are almost immediately absorbed into the blood, which contributes to an increase in the level of insulin. At this time, the person experiences joy and euphoria, so sugar is considered to be a drug that, when consumed excessively, causes dependence and negatively affects the overall health. That is why, the intake of sugar in the body should be controlled, but it is impossible to completely abandon it, because glucose is a reserve source of energy. In the body, it turns into glycogen and is deposited in the liver and muscles. At the moment of digestion of glycogen, the work of muscles is performed, therefore, it is necessary to keep the optimal amount of the body in the body.
Standards for the use of carbohydrates
As all carbohydrate groups have their own characteristics, their consumption should be clearly metered. For example, polysaccharides, in contrast to monosaccharides, should enter the body in larger quantities. In accordance with modern dietary norms, carbohydrates should make up half the daily ration, i.e.approximately 50% - 60%.
Calculation of the amount of carbohydrates needed for life
A different amount of energy is required for each group of people. For example, for children aged 1 to 12 months, the physiological need for carbohydrates varies between 13 grams per kilogram of weight, and it should not be forgotten which groups share the carbohydrates present in the baby's diet. For adults aged 18 to 30 years, the daily carbohydrate diet varies according to the direction of activity. So, for men and women engaged in mental work, the rate of consumption is about 5 grams per kilogram of weight. Consequently, with a normal body weight, a healthy person needs about 300 grams of carbohydrates per day. Depending on sex, this indicator also varies. If a person is engaged mainly in heavy physical labor or sports, then the following formula is used to calculate the carbohydrate norm: 8 grams per kilogram of normal weight. Moreover, in this case, the fact is also taken into account which groups are divided into carbohydrates coming from food. The above formulas allow us to calculate mainly the amount of complex carbohydrates - polysaccharides.
Approximate norms of sugar consumption for individual groups of people
As for sugar, in its pure form it is sucrose( glucose and fructose molecules).For an adult, only 10% of sugar is considered optimal from the number of calories consumed per day. To be precise, adult women need about 35-45 grams of pure sugar per day, for men this figure is higher - 45-50 grams. For those who are actively engaged in manual labor, the normal amount of sucrose ranges from 75 to 105 grams. These figures will allow a person to carry out activities and not to experience a decline in strength and energy. As for dietary fiber( fiber), their quantity should also be determined individually, taking into account the sex, age, weight and activity level( not less than 20 grams).
Thus, by determining which three groups are divided carbohydrates and understanding the importance in the body, each person will be able to independently calculate their required number for life and normal working capacity.