Syndrome of arterial hypertension: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Arterial hypertension syndrome is the most common cardiovascular disease that is associated with a chronic increase in blood pressure. According to statistical data, approximately 44% of the population of Russia suffers from one form or another of this ailment.
The disease is characterized by a sluggish course. Nevertheless, people with this diagnosis need qualified help. Absence of therapy is fraught with the development of dangerous complications right up to the patient's death. So what is the disease? What are the risk factors for hypertension? How do the symptoms look at the initial stage? Is it possible to somehow prevent the development of the disease? Are there effective methods of treatment? The answers to these questions are of interest to many people who have encountered such a problem.
Arterial hypertension( ICD-10): a description of the disease
To begin with it is necessary to understand what constitutes an ailment. The work of the heart and the tone of the vessels are controlled by the nervous system and a number of hormones secreted by the endocrine glands. Normally, the diastolic pressure is 70-90 mm Hg.st, and systolic - 120-140 mm Hg. Art. In the event that these indicators are increased, doctors say about such a disease as hypertension.
ICD-10 classifies this ailment as a class of diseases accompanied by increased blood pressure. The system of international classification of diseases assigned codes from I10 to I15.
It should be understood that a short-term increase in pressure is not a sign of hypertension. The change in this indicator may be due to various factors, including severe stress, emotional stress, physical activity, etc. The disease is spoken of if the hypertension becomes stable.
Classification of arterial hypertension
This ailment can develop under the influence of different factors, accompanied by different symptoms and contribute to the development of various complications. That is why there are many schemes for the systematization of forms of the disease. For example, the classification of arterial hypertension depending on the origin of the disease includes two main groups:
- Essential form of the disease .In fact, this is the primary arterial hypertension, the reasons for its development are not always clear. Nevertheless, a chronic increase in blood pressure in this case is not associated with lesions of other organs.
- Symptomatic hypertension .This is a secondary form of a disease that develops against the backdrop of other diseases. For example, a chronic increase in blood pressure can occur with damage to the kidneys, the nervous system, endocrine glands, and the administration of a number of medications.
It is also worth noting that four stages of development of the disease are distinguished, each of which is accompanied by a set of specific symptoms.
The main causes of the disease
The risk factors for hypertension can be very different. If it is a question of the primary form of the disease, then the following list of possible causes can be made:
- Hereditary predisposition.
- Harmful habits, especially smoking, since nicotine causes spasm of the vascular walls, which, accordingly, raises blood pressure.
- A sedentary lifestyle affects primarily the work of the heart.
- The presence of excess weight creates additional stresses on the cardiovascular system.
- Constant stress and nerve strains affect the hormonal background, which can serve as an impetus to the development of chronic hypertension.
- Risk factors include age - more often the syndrome of arterial hypertension is diagnosed in people older than 50-55 years.
- The constant intake of large amounts of table salt affects the balance of electrolytes, leading to the appearance of edema, which also affects blood pressure.
- Hypertension often affects diabetics.
It is worth mentioning that the reasons for the development of the primary form of the disease can not always be elucidated. As for secondary hypertension, in most cases it develops in such cases:
- Renal diseases, including chronic pyelonephritis, renal artery stenosis, diabetic nephropathy, acute and chronic forms of glomerulonephritis.
- Disorders in the endocrine system, for example, pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism, Cushing's syndrome and many others.
- Diseases of the circulatory system, congenital malformations, including open arterial duct, aortic valve failure.
- Syndrome of arterial hypertension can develop against the background of toxic effects on the body( taking drugs, alcohol abuse).
- In women, hypertension often appears during pregnancy, because during this period, the volume of blood increases, the load on the heart increases, and a tendency to edema develops.
- Risk factors include taking certain medicines, including hormones.
In such cases, the patient may develop a similar disease. Arterial hypertension is a serious ailment that should not be left without attention. And for the success of therapy it is important to determine the causes of the disease.
Current diagnostic methods for
If symptoms occur, please consult a physician. In order to make an accurate diagnosis, a specialist should collect as much information as possible.
- Pressure measurement is the very first diagnostic procedure that is performed when a suspected disease such as hypertension is suspected. Clinical recommendations, incidentally, suggest that patients with similar problems should have a tonometer in the house for periodic pressure changes. It is worth recalling that in normal this figure is 120-140 / 80-90 mm Hg. Art. Constant increase in pressure may indicate hypertension( of course, you need to consider various factors, including the age of the patient, the presence of diseases, taking medications, etc.).
- Anamnesis is another important part of the diagnosis. During the interview, the doctor tries to identify the risk factors, for example, to obtain information about previously transmitted diseases, the presence of relatives with hypertension, bad habits, etc.
- . Also, a phonendoscope is used to study the changes in heart sounds and the presence of noise.
- An electrocardiogram is a procedure that allows to detect heart rhythm disturbances. The syndrome of arterial insufficiency is often accompanied by hypertrophy of the left ventricle - such changes can be confirmed with the help of ECG.
- Echocardiography helps to detect changes in the structure of the heart, in particular to determine the increase in the thickness of the muscular walls, to detect valve defects.
- Arteriography is an x-ray procedure designed to examine the walls of arteries and measure their lumen. In this way it is possible, for example, to diagnose congenital narrowing of the vessel walls, to determine the presence of atheromatous plaques on the walls of the arteries.
- Doppler ultrasound is an ultrasound technique that allows you to assess the blood flow in the vessels. If suspicions of hypertension are primarily assigned to the examination of the brain and carotids.
- No less important is the biochemical blood test, which allows you to determine the level of sugar, cholesterol and lipoproteins( often the increase in pressure is associated with the development of atherosclerosis).
- Because hypertension is often associated with a violation of the thyroid gland, it shows the ultrasound of this organ.
Differential diagnosis of the syndrome of hypertension includes additional examinations of the organs of the circulatory, endocrine and excretory systems. Such procedures make it possible to find out the cause of the development of secondary hypertension.
Hypertension of the first degree: symptoms and treatment
Arterial hypertension of the 1st degree is accompanied by a fluctuation of blood pressure within 140-150 / 90-100 mm Hg. Art. Patients complain of frequent headaches that occur against the background of physical exertion. Sometimes there are pains in the left part of the chest, which are given in the scapula. People suffer from dizziness, which can result in fainting. Other symptoms include sleep disorders, the appearance of black dots in front of the eyes, rapid heartbeats, the appearance of noise in the ears. Symptoms appear only sometimes, the rest of the time the patient feels well.
Narrowing of blood vessels affects the blood supply of organs. The tissues do not receive enough oxygen and nutrients, which is accompanied by gradual necrosis. This, in turn, affects the metabolism. Arterial hypertension of the 1st degree affects the work of the whole organism. The most common complications include hypertrophy of the heart muscle, microinfarctions, kidney sclerosis.
Patients with a similar diagnosis are prescribed a special diet, physical education, relaxation exercises, etc. As for the drug treatment, the therapy includes vasodilators, diuretics( help to remove excess fluid from the body), neurotransmitters, anticholesterolics and sedatives.
Hypertension of the second degree: symptoms and features
Hypertension of the second degree is accompanied by a more pronounced increase in pressure - 160-179 / 100-109 mm Hg. Art. Patients have to face constant discomfort - the symptoms of hypertension rarely disappear completely. To their list it is possible to carry:
- chronic fatigue;
- recurring nausea, pulsation in the head;
- narrowing of arterioles, hyperemia;
- blurred vision, progressive pathology of the fundus;
- swelling of the facial tissues;
- increased sweating;
- the presence of albumin in the urine;
- numbness of the fingers.
Periodically there are hypertensive crises, which are accompanied by a sharp jump in blood pressure( sometimes even by 50-60 mm Hg).
Methods of treatment and possible complications of
At this stage, each patient needs medical treatment - the patients take all the same drugs as with hypertension of the first stage. The taking of tablets should be treated responsibly( doctors recommend taking them at the same time).Of course, it is important to follow the diet, avoid fatty foods, completely give up coffee, minimize the amount of table salt.
In the absence of treatment, possible development of dangerous complications. Among the most common include atherosclerosis( which only exacerbates the situation), encephalopathy, aortic aneurysm( pathological bulge of the vessel walls), angina pectoris, thrombosis of the brain vessels.
Features of the course and symptoms of hypertension of the third degree
The third stage is a severe chronic form of the disease, in which the risk of complications is extremely high. The arterial pressure rises above 180/110 mm. This indicator never decreases closer to normal. In addition to the above symptoms, other patients are present:
- arrhythmia develops;
- changes the gait of a person, coordination of movements is disrupted;
- cerebral circulation disorder entails the development of paresis and paralysis;
- persistent visual impairment;
- frequent and prolonged hypertensive crises, which are accompanied by the appearance of sharp pains in the chest, cloudiness of consciousness, speech disorders;
- gradually patients lose the ability to freely move around, communicate, serve themselves.
As the disease progresses, more and more organs are involved in the process. Against the background of increased pressure and oxygen starvation, possible complications such as myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary edema, cardiac asthma, peripheral arterial disease. Often, patients are diagnosed with renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, and nephroangiosis. Visual impairment often results in complete blindness.
Therapy for the third degree of development of the disease
Drug therapy is determined depending on the condition of the patient and the presence of concomitant diseases. As a rule, patients are assigned beta-blockers( Atenolol, Nadolol, Betaxolol), diuretics( Hypothiazid, Xipamid, Indapamide), ACE inhibitors( Ramipril, Fosinopril, Enaopril "), calcium antagonists( Plendil, Verapamil, Nifedipine).In addition, drugs designed to maintain normal functioning of the kidneys, endocrine glands, brain, and organs of vision may be prescribed.
What are the predictions for patients who are diagnosed with "hypertension"?Treatment, medications, proper diet, gymnastics - all this, certainly, helps to cope with some symptoms of the disease. Nevertheless, in the third stage, the ailment is not amenable to therapy - patients are given a disability of the first degree, since they are practically incapacitated.
Arterial hypertension of the fourth degree
It is extremely rare in modern medical practice to diagnose hypertension of the fourth degree. Unfortunately, at this stage the ailment is almost not treatable. Hypertensive crises become constant companions of the patient. At such times he needs urgent medical help. As a rule, the disease at this stage of development sooner or later ends in a lethal outcome.
Effective preventive measures for
Are there ways to prevent the development of a disease such as hypertension? Clinical recommendations in this case are quite simple. In the presence of poor heredity, people should carefully monitor the pressure, periodic medical examinations. It is extremely important to give up all bad habits, including taking drugs and alcohol, smoking.
Positive on the condition of the circulatory system is affected by regular exercise. One of the risk factors is stress - it is necessary to avoid nervous overstrain, meditate, adhere to the normal mode of work and rest, spend time in the fresh air. An important element of prevention is nutrition - doctors recommend reducing the amount of sugar, fats and table salt in the diet. The menu should contain foods that contain unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins. It is worth giving up coffee.
What should people who have arterial hypertension be diagnosed with? A doctor's help is needed in this case. The earlier the disease is identified, the easier it is to cope with it. Prevention in this case is aimed at preventing complications. The scheme includes taking medications and a healthy lifestyle.