What is dangerous hypertension and why?
The human body is akin to the work of a clock. All systems are in close relationship with each other, and the failure of any link causes a violation of the functionality of other organs.
A particular danger to health is the increase in blood pressure. What is dangerous for hypertension? Such a process leads to an imminent failure in the work of many organs and systems. Medical statistics claim that pathology carries a greater risk than a cancer, tuberculosis or a deficit of immunity. As a rule, the disease is diagnosed in the late stages, with the already formed mechanism of destruction of the body.
Signs of hypertension
What are the symptoms of hypertension and how dangerous is it?
To obvious signs it is possible to carry:
- Migraine, which can appear at any time of the day, both at night and in the morning.
- Pain sensations that do not have a clear localization. Often patients compare pain with a compressive hoop. Sometimes the pain becomes more intense with coughing, sneezing or head movement. Pain can be accompanied by edema of the eyelids and face.
- Tingling in the heart, which can occur at rest or during a period of nerve strain.
- Increase the ability to see objects. Eyes are covered with a shroud. Patients complain about "flies" before their eyes.
- Dizziness and tinnitus.
- Feeling sick.
Degrees of hypertension
It is accepted to distinguish three degrees of hypertension:
- Disease that occurs in mild form. With it, the systolic pressure is at 140-159 mm Hg.st., and diastolic - in the region of 90-99 mm Hg. Art. Hypertension of this degree is characterized by periodic jumps in the indices. The pressure can be normalized by itself, and then again rise to a high level.
- Hypertension moderate degree. The arterial pressure with it has the following indices: systolic blood pressure is 160-179 mm Hg.st., and diastolic - 100-109 mm Hg. Art. For ailment of this degree, more persistent changes are characteristic. To an optimal value, the values are omitted in rare cases.
- Hypertension 3 degrees. It is considered to be a serious pathology. The systolic pressure indicator reaches 180 mm Hg.and diastolic - up to 110 mm Hg. Art. At this degree, the pressure is held steady in the area of pathological marks.
In parallel with the degree of development of the disease, all risk factors that can lead to significant complications in the body are evaluated. The cardiovascular system suffers most.
It should be noted that the disease at the initial stage can be stopped by the following methods:
- compliance with a certain diet that does not include salty and fatty foods;
- rejection of bad habits( smoking and alcohol abuse);
- by increasing physical exertion at least for half an hour a day;
- getting rid of excess weight;
- setting the day;
- by avoiding stress and nervous overexertion.
The article will describe what dangerous hypertension is and why it should be treated as early as possible.
Complications arising at the last stage of hypertension
Disease, which is characterized by an increase in pressure to 169 at 109 mm Hg.is classified as hypertension of the third degree.
What is dangerous for hypertension 3 degrees? It quite violates the functionality of the body and causes many different complications, which manifest themselves very often. In this case, the damage to the heart, brain and kidneys starts the pathological cycle and complicates the course of hypertension itself.
Nervous system condition in hypertension
What is dangerous for hypertension for the state of the nervous system? If the disease acquires a chronic form, then the level of damage to the walls of the vessels of the brain sharply increases. This is due to the fact that with hypertension, the speed of blood flow through the venous bed increases dramatically. It is obvious that the accelerated flow of blood presses on the walls of the vessels and promotes their expansion. If the impact is not persistent, then the structure of the walls, as a rule, is restored. But if the process acquires a chronic course, the vessels become unprotected.
Pressure on the walls of the vessels is accompanied by the penetration of water and proteins into the space between the cells. Hydrocephalus helps squeeze the brain tissue. Exactly the same is the trigger mechanism in migraine, although with arterial hypertension it is accompanied by the release of water from the vascular bed. Such a process can occur without the expansion of the walls of the vessels. Therefore, hypertension of the 3rd stage carries a high threat to human health.
With increased pressure, the occurrence of:
- hemorrhagic stroke;
- artery aneurysm;
- intracerebral or intracranial hematoma.
Than hypertension is dangerous and why the brain area can undergo ischemia? With the stability of the pathological process, the vessels become denser and narrower, which carries a special danger in combination with the narrowing of the carotid artery. The brain is not getting enough oxygen. With a shortage of blood supply, discirculatory encephalopathy can develop, which develops into dementia.
What danger is caused by hypertension for internal organs
Various medical studies of recent decades have shown that hypertension can exert a destructive effect on the whole organism. But some organs suffer more. As a rule, the so-called target organs are affected. Without proper therapy, the pathological process can become irreversible.
The most frequent complications of increasing blood pressure include:
- hypertrophy - a marked increase in the size of the ventricles of the heart;
- rupture of vessels in the fundus;
- renal function impairment;
- violation of the reproductive system;
- development of diabetes mellitus;
- pathological changes in the vessels of the brain.
Emerging vision problems
In the process of a sharp rise in arterial pressure indicators, large vessels undergo expansion, which enables the transfer of increased blood volume. Small vessels, on the contrary, cease to fulfill their function, so with time they begin to sclerosis. The eyes of a person are covered with a network of very small capillaries. With malnutrition, they begin to thin out, and their walls are destroyed. As a result, pathology provokes persistent changes in the optic nerve.
Such processes are irreversible and can lead to a complete loss of the ability to see. More than 70% of patients who are diagnosed with hypertension have associated eye diseases.
Species of the pathology of the eyes
Depending on the severity of the eye fundus, the following types of pathology are distinguished:
- Hypertonic type angiopathy. It occurs at the initial stages of the disease. Changes occur at the level of the retinal vascular system and are reversible in rational treatment.
- Angiosclerosis - inherent in the 2 stages of the pathological process. With it, the walls of blood vessels and arteries thicken.
- Hypertensive retinopathy. It is characteristic for the 3 stages of hypertension. With her pathological process involves the eye retina, there are focal opacities and hemorrhages.
- Hypertensive neuroretinopathy. With this lesion, the functionality of the optic nerve is touched down to its full extinction.
Is hypertension dangerous for pancreatic function disorders? With diabetes, the vessels of the eye retina are destroyed very rapidly. This pathology provokes the deposition of a hyaline-like substance in the arterial wall, which causes the process of sclerosing arteries. On the retina, hemorrhages are noted.
Ischemic heart disease
Why is hypertension dangerous and why does the site of the heart muscle sclerosis? Ischemic heart disease is a serious disease, leading to irreversible structural changes in the area of the heart muscle, until the death of some of its areas, leading to a heart attack. The primary role in the development of ischemia is played by the lack of oxygen in tissues and organs under the influence of high blood pressure.
The defeat of the heart muscle in the presence of arterial hypertension has an organic basis. Due to the increased stress required to overcome resistance to blood vessels, the left ventricle is hypertrophied. At a certain moment, the epicardial arteries feeding the myocardium are squeezed. With ischemia, the heart muscle stretches, which provokes dilatation of the left ventricle. This disorder is the morphological basis of heart failure.
What is dangerous for hypertension for blood vessels? When the disease walls of blood vessels become strained under the influence of increased blood pressure. They become less durable, which can trigger the onset of atherosclerosis.
The ability to flow blood from blood vessels is reduced. In addition, the narrowed area can become clogged with a thrombus. In those areas in which the walls have less elasticity, an aneurysm can form. It can provoke internal bleeding and death.
Acute renal failure
What is dangerous hypertension for the kidneys? Between the violation of the functionality of the kidneys and hypertension there is a direct relationship. And it is continuous. The pathological process proceeds in a circle. Kidneys can play a role as a provoker of hypertension, and serve as its target.
Primary violation of blood pressure norms may be due to a malfunction in the kidneys. The pathological process is the inadequate removal of salts and sodium from the body by the kidneys. Hypertension provokes narrowing of the vessels feeding the organs. Deterioration of blood flow causes the death of kidney cells - nephrons, which causes an even greater disruption of the excretion of salt from the body due to the reduced volume of the surface of the filtration. This pathology causes an increase in the volume of circulating blood and, as a result, an increase in the indices of pressure.
In order to prove the theory of the effect of acute renal failure on pressure indices in 1975, a laboratory experiment was conducted in which a rat, not suffering from hypertension, was transplanted with a kidney of another rat, which had a pathology. As a result, a healthy rodent fell ill.
Many are interested: what is dangerous for arterial hypertension? It can cause serious complications. The insidiousness of the disease lies in the fact that in the initial stages it often goes unnoticed.
It is difficult to overestimate the negative impact of increasing blood pressure on the work of internal organs. Pathology disrupts the whole body. The earlier the therapy is started, the less complications will be provoked.