Lymphoid tissue and its role in our resistance to diseases
Every day the human body is forced to fight the penetration of various alien agents into the body. Pathogenic microorganisms, viruses, fungi and parasites get into us through damaged skin, digestive system, nasal mucosa and pharynx and cause various diseases. And only thanks to the immunity( the word is formed from the Latin immunitas and in literal translation means "free from anything") we are defending ourselves against such a massive invasion. Huge importance in this case is the tissue lymphoid, which is distributed throughout the body and in total is 1% of the total body weight. So what is it?
One of the types of connective tissue in which a system of macrophages and lymphocytes is located is called lymphoid. It can be presented in the form of separate organs, or it can simply be a functioning part of the body. There is a tissue lymphoid in such organs as bone marrow and spleen, lymph nodes and thymus gland. In them, it is a functioning parenchyma.
In the mucous membrane of some organs, there are also clusters of lymphoid tissue - bronchi, urinary tract, kidneys, intestines and others.
In all protective reactions without exception, the main part is taken by lymphoid tissue. The lymphocytes, macrophages and blasts contained in it, plasma cells, mast cells and leukocytes protect the body from the invasion of foreign cells and remove the damaged cells of the organism itself. For the formation of cells of the immune system, the lymph nodes, thymus gland and tissue( lymphoid) of the intestine are responsible.
If a bacterium or virus gets into the damaged skin, the defense reaction is activated at the nearest lymph node, lymphoid cells and macrophages are excreted, which move together with the lymph and blood to the place of detection of the "stranger".In the case of a mass attack, when one lymph node can not cope, the whole system of immunity is included.
Lymphoid tissue is most often a free cell supported in a reticular fiber network. The network can be more dense in composition( forms a dense tissue) or loose( with spaces where free cells can move freely).The fibers themselves are formed from type III collagen.
In places where there is a high probability of ingress of foreign organisms, large accumulations of lymphoid tissue are located. Familiar to all the tonsils - is the lymphoid tissue of the pharynx, located on the border with the oral cavity. They are pharyngeal, palatine, tubal and guttural. The totality of all the tonsils and areas is the lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx.
Its function is very important for our health, because it detoxifies the microbes that enter through the mouth and nose. And together with the organs containing lymphoid tissue, it ensures the formation of the necessary quantity of lymphocytes for the whole organism.
Among other things, the lymphoid tissue in the throat interacts with the endocrine glands( adrenals, thyroid, thymus, pancreas), forming a close connection "pituitary - adrenal cortex - lymphatic tissue" until puberty of the child.
What is hypertrophy
A child from three to ten years old can develop hypertrophy of the lymphoid tissue of the tonsils, while functioning is not disturbed. Only with the onset of puberty, hypertrophied tissue begins to decrease.
It is not known exactly what this process is related to, but the presumable causes are inflammation of the pharynx or infection, various endocrine disorders. Hypertrophy can lead to frequent inflammation or pathological changes in the ears, nose, larynx.
If nasal breathing is impaired, ventilation of the lungs is impaired. Later this leads to a change in blood composition - hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells decreases, and the white blood cells increase in quantity. Further, the functions of the digestive tract, the thyroid gland, and the adrenal glands begin to disrupt. Violation of all processes leads to a delay in the growth and sexual development of the child.
What is hyperplasia
The term "hyperplasia" came to us from the Greek language and means over-formation. In its essence, this is a pathology, in which cells begin to multiply intensively, increasing the volume of tissue.
But hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue is not a disease, but a symptom. Response of the body to the appearance of an infection or inflammatory process in the body. Outwardly this is especially noticeable on the lymph nodes. There are three types of lymph node hyperplasia:
- Infectious. The immune response to any infection leads to the production of lymphocytes and macrophages in the fast mode, this causes the growth of lymphoid tissue.
- Reactive. Bacteria and microbes enter the lymph node, they accumulate the products of their vital activity, the toxins they release, causing, in turn, the active isolation of macrophage cells.
- Malignant. In this pathological process, any cells of the lymph node can be involved, which leads to a change in its size, shape and structure.
Lymphoid tissue is one of the most important components of the immune system of our body. It helps prevent many diseases before the infection gets inside with food and air. It also performs other functions, the mechanism of which is not fully understood.
Sometimes lymphoid tissue becomes inflamed, and diseases such as appendicitis, tonsillitis and many others( depending on the site of lymphoid tissue localization) appear. Very often in such cases, doctors resort to surgical methods of treatment, in other words, remove the affected area or organ. Since all the functions of lymphoid formations have not been studied thoroughly, one can not say 100% that such removal does not harm the human body.