What causes caries? Products and bacteria that cause caries
Caries is a process in which the integrity of the tooth wall is disturbed. First, the mineral substances are dissolved, and then the tooth is completely destroyed. Many people are interested in what causes caries, why the process arises. Knowing these reasons, you can protect your oral cavity, keep your teeth healthy for a longer time.
What causes caries
During the history of dentistry, many theories have been studied and identified, which, in one way or another, treated the formation of caries. Altogether there are about four hundred theories, not all of them have certainly been taken seriously by researchers. So what causes tooth decay? The main reasons are:
- reduced stability;
Miller's theory is considered the most interesting. It can be attributed to the most modern concept, which is complemented by other theories. What is its essence? Caries occurs when the microorganisms and carbohydrates interact in the oral cavity. Under the influence of food fermentation, organic acids are formed, and they give rise to the formation of caries.
The more in the oral cavity of acids, the stronger the destruction of enamel. The tooth loses calcium, and caries occur. Miller identified two additional reasons for the development of caries. Interestingly, he always confirmed his assumptions in practice. In his theory there are many inconsistencies, but the basic concept is correct. The basis of the modern theory is the change of the pH medium in the oral cavity, not only on the parts of the teeth, but also under the coating accumulated on the surface of the enamel.
Process causative agents
Bacteria that cause caries are pathogens. Depending on what kind of bacteria is the cause, the rate of development of the process will depend. There are many species of bacteria, each of them can become a causative agent, they all have a lot of differences in the rate of acid production, by the method of plaque formation. The most common pathogens include:
It is now clear what causes the caries to have bacteria in the mouth. To avoid the development of caries, it is necessary not to allow bacteria to multiply in the mouth. It is necessary to remove particles of food in time, which serves as their feeding. Twice a day, you just need to brush your teeth. A toothbrush allows you to remove both the bacteria themselves and the environment in which it is convenient for them to multiply. Protecting teeth from tooth decay will be reliable if you follow the rules.
The basic rules for oral care are as follows:
- It is advisable to clean your teeth after each meal.
- If it is not possible to use the toothbrush, it is necessary, at least, to rinse the mouth. The most dangerous are 20 minutes after eating.
- Try to keep a floss that allows you to remove the remaining food particles. Timely removal does not allow bacteria to multiply.
- Use mouth rinses that help to kill bacteria.
- Chewing gum will also help. But remember, you can chew it only after eating, for 15-20 minutes.
- Neither the brush nor the dental floss will give you a 100% guarantee of cleaning your teeth, therefore it is recommended to perform professional cleaning at the dentist from time to time.
The development of caries can not be stopped on its own. And if the process has already gone, only the dentist can help. Treatment is necessary to protect all the teeth that bacteria can migrate to.
The brush will remove only a soft coating. Over time, tartar begins to form, beneath it, it is impossible to remove the bacteria that remain there and multiply.
Products as a caries-forming factor
Cariesogenic bacteria live and propagate in the oral cavity( Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans).They feed on carbohydrate residues of food, which they process, while forming an organic acid. This process is called fermentation or fermentation. Organic acid is in contact with the enamel, while dissolving the mineral components. So, from what does caries appear?
Gradually, the enamel becomes thinner and a cavity is formed in the tooth.
Excessive consumption of sugar, sweet food, rich in carbohydrates, sooner or later leads to the formation of caries. This is a confirmed axiom. WHO experts have proved that in countries where the population consumes less sugar, tooth decay is less common.
Carbohydrates such as lactose, fructose, glucose also have a cariogenic potential. But to a lesser extent.
Professional removal of caries can be made only by a dentist. He also recommends a diet that can protect against caries.
Five main components should be included in high-grade food: fats, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. To keep your teeth healthy, your body simply needs fluoride, calcium, and vitamin D.
Fluoride. Per day, the optimal dosage for our body is 2-3 mg. A significant part comes with drinking water. At modern treatment facilities, fluorination of water is carried out specially. Together with phosphorus and calcium, fluorine is involved in the formation of tooth enamel and bone tissue itself. However, an overdose of fluoride is also dangerous, as is its lack. There may be fluorosis, in which "speckled enamel" develops.
Calcium. This is the main builder of bones. The norm for an adult is 800-900 mg. But it is worth noting that this element is fully absorbed, only if the body has enough vitamin D.
Vitamin D .It is produced in the body by the sun's rays. In regions where the sun is low, it is recommended to use vitamin D additionally. Its norm for humans is 5 mcg.
Useful products for caries prevention
So that you do not need caries removal, observe the rules for oral care and use the right products useful for teeth. These include:
- Solid food that helps to clean the surface of the teeth from plaque, which sticks to the enamel. These are carrots, cabbage, apples.
- Berries of purple, red, blue colors contain bioflavonoids. These vitamin-like substances serve as a barrier to the formation of a bacterial film on the teeth.
- Wholemeal products, bran, cereals. Stimulate the formation of saliva, contain antioxidants( polyphenols), which protect against destruction of enamel.
- A storehouse of vitamins, minerals and proteins - beans and nuts.
- Algae, sea fish, seafood are rich in vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, calcium.
- Garlic is a powerful natural antiseptic. In the oral cavity neutralizes cariogenic bacteria.
- Dairy products. Very useful yogurt, which is rich in phosphopeptides. They accelerate the absorption of calcium, strengthen and restore the enamel of the tooth.
- Natural cheeses are rich in fatty acids and calcium. Whey protein, contained in cheese, provides for the remineralization of enamel.
Products that cause tooth decay
The following are products that promote active tooth decay:
- Various sweets - jam, chocolate with additives, cookies, cakes.
- Salt in large quantities does not fully absorb minerals and vitamins.
- The fermentation process, and further putrefaction, is promoted by the sticky food that remains on the teeth.
- Sweet drinks - sodas, lemonades - not only contain a lot of sugar, they simply corrode tooth enamel. Drink such drinks are recommended only through the tube.
- The composition of water also plays a significant role. High content of nickel, copper, chlorine is dangerous for the body, in particular for teeth.
The main recommendations for lovers of sweet
Often caries in young children, and often in adults, arises from a great love for sweet. Of course, it is completely impossible to exclude sweets. Listen at least to useful advice:
- Reduce the period of time of the stay of sweets in the mouth( lollipop, chupa-chups).After intake, rinse the oral cavity.
- Do not eat sweets for the night.
- Do not get carried away by sweets in between main meals.
- Try to replace sweet desserts with berries, fruits.
In the prevention of caries in children, healthy eating is the main component. If you notice a hole, you need to go to the dentist, no advice will help.
Consequences of caries
The main danger of caries is that it arises and proceeds in the initial stages, it is imperceptible, painless. If pain occurs, it is often too late. The tooth is so destroyed that it is necessary to remove it. Dental caries is so insidious. Treatment should be started when there are no pain symptoms. Otherwise, pulpitis, inflammation in the soft tissues, periodontitis may develop.
Ordinary caries causes diseases of internal organs, joints, heart often suffers. The most unpleasant prospect is a tooth loss. Caries often causes allergic reactions. Sore teeth serve to refrain from solid food, as a consequence - a sick stomach.
Detection of caries in the early stages of
How to treat caries correctly? With regular access to the dentist, caries treatment will not seem difficult, the price will also be significantly lower, in comparison with more detailed intervention. Turning in time at an early stage, you can avoid extensive development. So the prices in dental clinics in Moscow are very diverse. They depend on the professionalism of the dentist and the materials used. Treatment of an average caries will cost from 970 to 14 thousand rubles, deep - from 1150 to 16 thousand rubles. The price for seals also depends on the materials: from the composites of chemical curing is cheaper - from 300 to 4 thousand rubles, the most expensive seal( light polymerization) - from 600 to 12 thousand rubles.
Without the help of a dentist, caries are difficult to detect. You will feel it yourself when the toothache is already developing. The earlier the problem is detected, the easier it will be to treat. For the patient this is a big plus. Black sooner or later always gets to soft tissues, then you have to open the tooth and treat the nerve. It is better not to test fate and visit the dentist twice a year. It will only be beneficial to your health.
Causes of the disease can be different, as, indeed, and its stages. Not always for caries is topical sealing. At the initial stage, call it the "white spot stage", a mineral deficiency is formed in some areas of tooth enamel. In such cases, it must be strengthened. The doctor prescribes remineralization. During this procedure, the enamel is artificially saturated with microelements. Such treatment of caries( the price will be much less) after a few procedures will restore the shade of enamel, caries will cease to develop further.
Traditional filling is used in the surface or medium stage. The procedure takes about half an hour, does not cause any discomfort and pain. The treatment of deep caries takes not only more time, but also means. The procedure can take several sessions.
Correct treatment of caries
Unlike some other diseases that can be treated in the home, only the dentist can help get rid of tooth decay. If on examination the doctor has revealed an average or deep stage, he will appoint an x-ray that will show how far the tissue damage has gone, check the integrity of the roots.
Deep caries treatment can be performed with removal of the nerve. This is done in cases where the patient experiences pain, reacts to hot, cold stimuli. After removal of the nerve, the doctor begins to treat caries. The drill allows you to remove the affected areas. The cavity of the tooth is disinfected with the medicine, after some manipulations the doctor proceeds to filling.
Usually treatment is done in two ways, either a permanent or a temporary seal is established. A permanent seal is immediately put in the event that the nerve is not removed( problem-free teeth).If there is a risk of inflammation, then for a few days put a temporary seal, which is then replaced by a permanent one. If these days there were painful feelings, then the doctor begins treatment again.
To avoid deep problems, contact the dentist on time, take preventive examinations twice a year, look after your teeth properly, and your smile will shine for many years.