Enteritis - what is it? Causes, symptoms, treatment
Enteritis is an inflammatory disease of the human small intestine, in which dystrophic changes occur in the mucosa and the processes of absorption and digestion of food are disturbed.
Enteritis - what is it? Types of enteritis
Chronic enteritis is classified by etiology, morphology, clinical and functional symptoms.
On etiology distinguish parasitic, alimentary, infectious, toxic, radiation, postoperative and medicinal enteritis. In addition, the disease manifests itself in congenital anomalies of the small intestine, insufficiency of the valve between the thick and small intestine, enzymopathy, secondary enteritis.
According to anatomical and morphological changes, enteritis without serious disorders of the mucosa, as well as with a moderate or subtotal degree of atrophy of epithelial cells and intestinal villi.
Clinically, the disease is mild, moderate or severe. With chronic enteritis, there may be a remission and an exacerbation phase. Since enteritis is a disease of inflammatory nature, it is necessary to begin treatment at the first signs of pathology in order to maintain intestinal health.
Functional disorders are characterized by specific symptoms - a violation of absorption of nutrients in the intestine, a change in the hydrolysis of food, enteric insufficiency and exudative enteropathy.
Causes of the development of the disease
There are several reasons for the occurrence of disorders in the small intestine:
- infectious agents, intestinal parasites that progress and multiply in the small intestine;
- toxic substances( arsenic, lead and others);
- self-medication, long-term use of antibiotics and other medications;
- untreated acute enteritis;
- inadequate chewing food, improper nutrition( eating sharp and fatty foods, fast food, overeating, food allergies);
- inadequate production of intestinal enzymes;
- presence of concomitant diseases( pancreatitis, tuberculosis, cirrhosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis).
Lack of proper treatment for chronic enteritis will contribute to dystrophic changes and inflammation in other parts of the digestive system( pancreas, gallbladder, stomach).
Clinical picture of enteritis
External manifestations of the disease include any violation of absorption and absorption of food. These include:
- sharp and rapid weight loss( a person loses up to 20 kg);
- appearance of insomnia, severe irritability;
- decrease in labor activity;
- skin problems( thinning, dryness, peeling), hair loss, thickening of the nail plate and brittleness;
- muscle pain, weakness, paresis and seizures.
Due to the violation of absorption of vitamins, it is possible to develop concomitant diseases - hemorrhagia, neuropathy, myopathy, cheilitis, glossitis, subcutaneous hemorrhage.
Intramuscular symptoms of enteritis
Enteritis in humans is characterized by a manifestation of abdominal tenderness in the navel, palpation increases pain. There is a syndrome 2-3 hours after eating. Pain can have a different character( blunt, bursting, cramping).
This is due to a violation of absorption of bile acids in the distal small intestine. As a result, the acids enter the large intestine and cause a violation of absorption and digestion processes( diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, rumbling in the abdomen).It is these signs that show enteritis.
What is it? If the ileocecal valve is broken( separates the thin and thick parts of the intestine), hummus may enter the small intestine, which is why it is contaminated with harmful microorganisms.
Diagnosis of the disease
The primary diagnosis is based on a survey and a general examination of the patient, which includes palpation and percussion( tapping of the abdominal wall).The next step is to conduct a coprogram. In a macroscopic study, the smell, consistency and color are determined, and in microscopic research, the presence of fats, muscle fibers or starch in the analysis is determined.
To detect infectious microorganisms and dysbacteriosis in the intestine, it is necessary to conduct a bacteriological study of feces for enteritis. What it is? In chronic enteritis in the biochemical analysis of blood, you can find signs of insufficiency of absorption of nutrients in the small intestine( malabsorption syndrome).
Conducting an endoscopic examination of the small intestine causes many difficulties, since only a small part of it can be examined. During the endoscopy, a mucosal biopsy specimen is taken, which is necessary for histological analysis. It is most often noted atrophy and dystrophy of epithelial cells and villi of the intestine.
X-ray examination can identify tumors, ulcers, changes in the structure of the folds of the small intestine. Before the study, a contrast agent is injected into the body, allowing the detection of enteritis. What is this, the doctor will tell you. To differentiate the disease requires a comprehensive examination using modern diagnostic methods.
Symptomatic of the disease has much in common with the clinical manifestations of other pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, differential diagnosis of enteritis with gastritis, pancreatic problems and tumors is necessary.
Any disease of the small intestine requires careful examination, since many similar symptoms entail the production of an incorrect diagnosis and the appointment of an ineffective, in some cases even dangerous, treatment that can aggravate the condition of the small intestine.
Acute enteritis treatment
Acute enteritis requires treatment in a hospital setting. Patients prescribed a diet, bed rest, a plentiful drink. Perhaps the appointment of hydration therapy. Treatment is aimed at general strengthening of the body and reducing the manifestation of unpleasant symptoms of the disease.
If enteritis is accompanied by a severe form of dysbiosis, it is necessary to take medications, the action of which is aimed at restoring the intestinal microflora. Elimination of diarrhea is due to the use of astringents. If there was a violation of protein metabolism, it is necessary to introduce polypeptide solutions into the body.
The average duration of treatment is 7-10 days. During this time, acute symptoms of the disease are cured, and health is strengthened. Enteritis, the treatment of which lasts less, does not heal to the end and provokes repeated manifestations of unpleasant and painful symptoms.
If the disease is toxic or infectious, the patient must be hospitalized.
Treatment of chronic enteritis
In chronic enteritis treatment is almost the same. You need the same diet and bed rest. If digestive enzymes are not produced, they are prescribed in the form of enzyme preparations( Festal, Pancreatin).It is also necessary to take medications that ensure the absorption and restoration of cellular membranes of intestinal epithelial cells.
Enteritis, the treatment of which is carried out in accordance with the appointment of a doctor, quickly enough to stop bothering. However, the chronic form is characterized by frequent phases of exacerbations and remissions.
Concomitant dysbacteriosis should be treated with eubiotics and probiotics, which restore the beneficial intestinal microflora. If the symptoms of enteritis occur against the background of the appearance of neoplasms in the small intestine( diverticula, polyps), then in the first place, their surgical removal is necessary, and only then can the effects of the disease be stopped.
Diet for enteritis
For enteritis, diet № 4 is prescribed. It includes lean meat or fish, which can be boiled, baked or fried. It is necessary to prepare soups for meat, fish, vegetable or mushroom broths. Vegetables are recommended to be finely cut, in some cases, even cereals should be wiped through a sieve.
From dairy products preference is given to kefir and yogurt. Such drinks can quickly restore the intestines, improve its work and inhabit useful microorganisms.
Vegetable products are best used after cooking. Vegetables need to boil, bake or fry, and from fruit you can cook compote, jelly or rub with sugar. Tea with a lemon, broths of a dogrose, berries and bran will be very useful.
Preventive maintenance of enteritis
Any disease is easier to prevent than cure. To measures that prevent intestinal enteritis, you can include:
- rational nutrition;
- use only quality and fresh products;
- absence of toxic substances in food( you can not use berries and mushrooms of unknown origin);
- compliance with personal hygiene;
- careful processing of food products;
- taking medications as prescribed by doctors;
- a timely visit to medical facilities for the detection of digestive tract diseases, as well as violations of endocrine and metabolic processes in the body.
With the observance of all preventive measures, it is possible to prevent the development of digestive diseases and disorders, and a healthy lifestyle will allow you to maintain your health at the highest level.
Enteritis in puppy
In dogs, the disease manifested relatively recently, but its progression provokes a high mortality among puppies. An infection that affects the intestines of animals is not dangerous to humans, but quickly develops in the body of young dogs and causes serious structural and functional disturbances.
Enteritis in puppy manifests lethargy, fever, and when stroking the sides or pressing on the stomach, the dog will buckle his back and press his tail, which indicates a painful syndrome. With such symptoms, you need to contact the veterinarian for an accurate diagnosis and treatment.