What are heat shock proteins
If the temperature rises, the living organism reacts to this by producing unique compounds called "heat shock proteins".So the person reacts, so the cat reacts, so any creature reacts, since it consists of living cells. However, not only the temperature increase provokes the synthesis of heat shock proteins of chlamydia and other species. Quite often situations are provoked by severe stresses.
Since heat shock proteins are produced by the body only in specific situations, they have a number of differences from the normally produced compounds. The period of their formation is characterized by oppression of the expression of the basic protein pool, which plays an important role for metabolism.
BTSC-70 eukaryotes, DnaK prokaryotes - this is a family in which scientists combined heat shock proteins, significant for survival at the cellular level. This means that, thanks to such connections, the cell can continue to function even in a situation where stress, heat, and aggressive environment counteract this. However, the proteins of this family can also participate in processes occurring in normal conditions.
Biology at microscopic level
If the domains are identical by 100%, then eukaryotes, prokaryotes are more than 50% homologous. Scientists have proved that in nature, among all protein groups, 70 kDa of HTS is one of the most conservative. Dedicated to this research were done in 1988 and 1993.Presumably, the phenomenon can be explained through the chaperone functionality inherent in heat shock proteins in intracellular mechanisms.
How does it work?
If we consider eukaryotes, then under the influence of heat shock occurs the induction of HSP genes. If some cell has avoided stressful conditions, then factors are present in the nucleus, the cytoplasm as monomers. Such a compound has no DNA binding activity.
Undergoing stressful conditions, the cell behaves as follows: Hsp70 is cleaved, which initiates the production of denatured proteins. HTS forms trimmers, activity changes its nature and affects DNA, which eventually leads to the accumulation of components in the nucleus of the cell. The process is accompanied by a multiple increase in chaperone transcription. Of course, the situation provoked this with time, and by the time this happens, Hsp70 can again join the HHS.Activity associated with DNA, is coming to naught, the cell continues to work, as if nothing had happened. This sequence of events could be identified as far back as 1993 in the studies on the HHS conducted by Morimoto. If the body is infected with bacteria, then the HSP can concentrate on the synovial membrane.
Why and why?
Scientists succeeded in revealing that HSPs are formed as a result of the influence of a variety of negative, life-threatening cell situations. Stressful, damaging influences from the outside can be extremely diverse, but lead to the same option. Due to the HSP, the cell survives under the influence of aggressive factors.
It is known that HSPs are divided into three families. In addition, scientists have identified that there are antibodies to the heat shock protein. The subdivision into groups of HTS is performed taking into account the molecular weight. Three categories: 25, 70, 90 kDa. If in a living organism there is a normally functioning cell, then within it there will surely be various proteins intermingled, quite similar. Thanks to the HTS, denatured proteins, as well as curdled incorrectly, can again become a solution. However, in addition to this function, there are some others.
What we know and what we are guessing
Until now, the heat shock protein of Chlamydia, as well as other HSPs, has not been fully studied. Of course, there are some groups of proteins about which scientists have a fairly large amount of data, and there are those that are yet to be mastered. But already now science has reached the level when knowledge will allow to say that in oncology the protein of heat shock can prove to be a really useful means to defeat one of the most terrible diseases of our century - cancer.
Scientists have the largest amount of data on Hsp70 HSPs capable of coming into contact with various proteins, aggregates, complexes, even with abnormal ones. With time, release occurs, accompanied by ATP connection. This means that a solution appears in the cell again, and proteins that have undergone an incorrect coagulation process can be re-subjected to this operation. Hydrolysis, ATP connection - mechanisms that made this possible.
Anomalies and norms
It is difficult to overestimate the role of heat shock proteins for living organisms. Any cell always contains abnormal proteins whose concentration can grow if there are external conditions to it. A typical story is overheating or the effect of infection. This means that for the continuation of the vital activity of the cell, it is urgently necessary to generate more HTS.The transcription mechanism is activated, which initiates the production of proteins, the cell adapts to changing conditions and continues to function. However, along with the already known mechanisms, much remains to be discovered. In particular, such a rather large field for the activity of scientists are antibodies to the protein of heat shock of chlamydia.
HSP, when the polypeptide chain increases, and they find themselves in conditions that make it possible to join with it, they allow to avoid nonspecific aggregation and degradation. Instead, folding occurs in the normal mode, when the necessary chaperones are involved in the process. Hsp70 is additionally necessary for the development of polypeptide chains with the participation of ATP.By HTS, it is possible to achieve that non-polar regions are also affected by enzymes.
HSP and medicine
In Russia, FMBA scientists were able to create a new drug, using for its construction a protein of heat shock. The cancer medicine presented by the scientists has already passed the initial test on the experimental rodents affected by sarcomas, melanomas. These experiments allowed us to confidently say that a significant step forward in the fight against oncology has been made.
Scientists have suggested and were able to prove that the protein of heat shock - a medicine, more precisely, can become the basis for an effective drug, in large part precisely because these molecules are formed in stressful situations. Since they are originally produced by the body in order to ensure the survival of cells, it has been suggested that with the proper combination with other agents, one can even fight with a tumor.
HSP helps the drug to detect diseased cells in the diseased organism and cope with the incorrect DNA in them. It is assumed that the new drug will be equally effective for any subtype of malignant diseases. It sounds like a fairy tale, but the doctors go even further - they assume that the cure will be available at absolutely any stage. Agree, such a protein of heat shock from cancer, when it passes all the tests and confirms its reliability, will be an invaluable acquisition for human civilization.
To diagnose and treat
The most detailed information about the hope of modern medicine was told by Dr. Simbirtsev, one of those who worked on the creation of the drug. From his interview you can understand the logic of the scientists who built the drug and how it should bring efficiency. In addition, it can be concluded whether the protein of heat shock has already passed clinical trials or is yet to come.
As mentioned earlier, if the body does not experience stressful conditions, then the production of BSH takes place in an exceptionally small volume, but it increases significantly with a change in external influence. At the same time, a normal human body is not able to produce as much HTS as would help to defeat the emerging malignant neoplasm."And what happens if you introduce a HTS from the outside?"- thought the scientists and made this idea the basis for the study.
How does this work?
To create a new drug, scientists in the laboratory have recreated everything necessary to make live cells start producing HSPs. For this, a human gene was obtained, which underwent cloning with the use of the newest equipment. Bacteria, studied in laboratories, were modified until they began to independently produce a protein so desired for scientists.
Scientists on the basis of the information obtained during the research made conclusions about the impact of HSP on the human body. To do this, we had to organize an x-ray structural analysis of the protein. It is not easy to do this: we had to send samples to the orbit of our planet. This is due to the fact that terrestrial conditions are not suitable for a regular, uniform development of crystals. But the space conditions allow you to get exactly the crystals that the scientists needed. Upon returning to their home planet, the experimental samples were divided between Japanese and Russian scientists, who took up their analysis, as they say, without losing a second.
And what did you find?
So far, work in this direction is still under way. A representative of the group of scientists said that it was possible to establish accurately: there is no exact connection between the HSP molecule and the organ or tissue of a living being. And this speaks of universality. So, if the heat shock protein finds its application in medicine, it will become a panacea immediately from a huge number of diseases - whatever body is affected by a malignant neoplasm, it will be cured.
Initially, scientists produced the drug in liquid form - it was injected injectively. Rats, mice were taken as the first specimens to test the remedy. It was possible to identify cases of cure both at the initial and late stages of the disease. The current stage is called pre-clinical trials. Scientists estimate the time of its completion not less than a year. After this, the time of clinical trials will come. On the market, a new tool, perhaps a panacea, will be available in another 3-4 years. However, as the scientists note, all this is real only if the project finds funding.
Waiting or not to wait?
Of course, the promises of doctors sound attractive, but at the same time justly cause distrust. How much time humanity suffered from cancer, how many victims of this disease have been in the last few decades, and here they promise not just an effective drug, but a real panacea - from any species, at any time. How can you believe such a thing? And worse - believe it, but do not wait, or wait, but it turns out that the tool is not as good as it was expected, as it was promised.
The development of the drug is a technique of genetic engineering, that is, the most advanced field of medicine as a science. This means that with proper success, the results and the truth should be impressive. However, simultaneously it means that the process is extremely expensive. As a rule, investors are ready to invest rather large funds in promising projects, but when the subject is so loud, the pressure is large, and the timeframe is rather blurred, the risks are estimated as huge. It now sounds optimistic forecasts for 3-4 years, but all market experts know how often the time frame sprawls to decades.
Surprisingly, incredible. .. or all the same?
Biotechnology is an area for the layman closed to understanding. Therefore, one can only hope for the words "the success of preclinical trials".The product was named "Heat shock protein".However, HSP - this is only the main component of the medicine, which promises to become a breakthrough in the market of drugs against oncology. In addition, a number of other useful substances are expected to be included in the composition, which will guarantee the effectiveness of the facility. And all this became possible due to the fact that the newest studies of HSP showed that the molecule not only helps to protect live cells from damage, but also is for immunity with a sort of "pointing finger" that helps to identify which cells are affected by the tumor and which are not. Simply put, when the HTS appears in the body in a sufficiently large concentration, scientists hope, the immune response itself will destroy the sick elements.
Hoping and waiting for
Summing up, we can say that the novelty against the tumor is based on the fact that the body itself has a remedy that could destroy the neoplasm, it is simply by nature quite weak. Concentration is so small that it is not necessary to dream of any therapeutic effect. At the same time, some of the HSPs are in cells that are not affected by the tumor, and from them the molecule will not go away anywhere. Therefore, it is necessary to supply the useful substance from the outside - so that it further directively affects the affected elements. By the way, while scientists assume that even the side effects of the drug will not be - and this is with such high effectiveness! And they explain such "magic" by the fact that studies have shown that there is no toxicity. However, the final conclusions will be made when the preclinical trials come to an end, which will take at least a year.