Acute thyroiditis: causes and treatment
Thyroiditis is a disease of the endocrine system. When our main gland( thyroid gland) the endocrine secret produces much lower or higher than normal, the body gets serious problems. The ailments associated with the thyroid gland are displayed primarily in all metabolic processes.
What happens to the thyroid gland in thyroiditis?
Thyroiditis is an inflammation of the thyroid gland. When the disease develops, the cells of this organ gradually stop performing their functions. A function of the gland is the production of various hormones that regulate the conduct in the body of all metabolic processes. Accordingly, when the gland is broken, weight problems begin.
There are several types of inflammation of this organ:
- Thyroiditis de Kervena.
- Acute thyroiditis.
- Zob Ridel( fibrous form).
Acute thyroiditis of the thyroid gland should be immediately treated and not run. But what are its manifestations and how dangerous is it? We will consider these questions.
Symptoms of inflammation
Thyroiditis is characterized by several obvious manifestations. At the onset of the inflammatory process, the function of the gland is always increased. The main manifestations are marked goiter( enlarged iron), hand tremors and aseptic inflammation of thyroid tissue( thyroid tissue).All these manifestations testify to the failure of the hormonal system.
For physiological reasons, these patients sometimes protrude from the orbits of the eye. These people need urgent medical help from the endocrinologist.
Acute and subacute thyroiditis: causes of
Subacute form of inflammation, or thyroiditis of de Kerven, is nothing more than an inflammation of the gland caused by a viral infection. After 3, 4 or 5 weeks after the abatement of infectious fever, symptoms of thyroid disease begin.
Women suffer from this form of inflammation 8 times more often. The disease lasts about 6 months. What symptoms can occur in subacute?
- Soreness in the thyroid gland. Sometimes the pain is in the ears or whiskey, it increases with the turn of the head.
- There is hypermetabolism( increased metabolism).
- Nodule formation is possible.
- Weakness, headache.
- Elevated body temperature.
- Neck skin is hyperemic.
Almost always the cause of subacute thyroiditis is the spread of other infections in the body on the gland itself.
Thyroid hormones produced by the pituitary gland in the brain, signal the thyroid gland to work. The latter produces a tiroid - proteins. The pituitary gland is located in the central part of the brain and is responsible for the production of almost all the hormones most needed for us. The number of thyroid glands produced by the gland should be equal to the amount of the hormone TSH( thyroid-stimulating hormone).But when the iron is too active, the person becomes uncontrollable. From the strongest overexcitation, the whole body can shake. Women develop hysteroid manifestations, as the hormonal background is disrupted.
A deficiency in the body of the thyroid gives a signal to the pituitary that it urgently needs a hormone. And the pituitary gland produces even more TSH.Therefore, people who have hypothyroidism revealed thyroid, or it is generally cut out, or prescribed to take the secret of the gland in tablets.
This disease occurs when the own immune cells( antibodies) begin to attack the follicles( cells) of the thyroid. In this case, the iron becomes inflamed, and the destruction of its cells takes place. At the beginning of the "attack" of leukocytes, there are no significant symptoms. But then, when the thyroid gland gradually breaks down and loses its cells, it starts to work too actively. As a result, thyrotoxicosis occurs. After the stage of excessive activation, the stage of oppression of the functions of the thyroid gland begins. Then the patient becomes drowsy and sleepy. The weight is gaining, and the hair falls out more. In many people, body temperature often falls below normal.
The exact causes of the autoimmune process are unknown. Scientists associate this state with poor ecology, contaminated water, genetic predisposition. The stimulating factor of the disease is called the experienced stressful situation. As a result of stress, there may be a malfunction in the immune protection program. Especially the risk increases in allergy sufferers who already have some failures in the protective mechanisms. Acute autoimmune thyroiditis without treatment goes into a chronic stage. And inflammation leads to a significant loss of thyroid cells.
Acute thyroiditis of the thyroid gland is still developing as a result of toxic damage, when some chronic process, sometimes tonsillitis or prolonged and severe influenza, has affected the thyroid gland. Toxic thyroiditis, or thyrotoxicosis, has such symptoms:
- whole body trembling, especially trembling hands;
- increased sweating;
- suddenly rises blood pressure;
- strong palpitations;
- sometimes there are interruptions in the stable operation of the heart.
As a result of the increased function of the thyroid gland, the latter wear out. After a hyperthyroidism there comes an inverse condition - a hypothyrosis( lack of activity).The patient has a fever, and constantly tends to sleep. At this time, medical help is needed, as the situation will only worsen, and more cells of the gland will die.
Acute purulent thyroiditis develops due to the spread of the inflammatory process to the thyroid gland. And this is not related to autoimmune processes. The cause of this disease is most often irradiation during the treatment of cancer or inflammation next to the thyroid, for example, severe tonsillitis or pneumonia. Another reason for the development of an acute process is a hemorrhage directly into this area. Thyroid gland in such cases when palpation is firm, but with proliferation of purulent masses becomes softer. Simultaneously with the growth of goiter inflamed lymph nodes, which is natural with any inflammation. If you do not seek medical help on time, the abscess will break through as a result.
Complications of acute purulent thyroiditis can be:
- lung abscess;
- sepsis( blood poisoning);
- aspiration pneumonia;
The most dangerous if it breaks through, then the infection will penetrate into the blood, and that, most likely, will transfer it to the brain. Sometimes the abscess breaks out.
Several medical tests are required to diagnose the causes of inflammation and the general condition of the patient. Without research, the doctor will not be able to prescribe adequate treatment. It is necessary to conduct:
- scintigraphy of the thyroid;
- for the hormone TSH;
- of thyroid ultrasound;
What is a scintigraphy? This is a radiological study of the function of glandular tissue. On ultrasound, a doctor can see an abscess or nodules in the gland, and then carry out treatment based on a clear idea of the patient's state of health. The level of thyroid hormones is not increased if the person has an acute thyroiditis, but in the subacute course of the disease it is already increasing. Also, doctors require an analysis and find out if the level of ESR( the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation) is elevated in the blood. To diagnose the type of inflammation it is very important. Thyroiditis de Kervena is characterized by an elevated level of ESR and leukocytosis. Although these changes in the blood may not be.
Treatment of inflammation
As soon as a little inflamed lymph nodes against a painful sensation when swallowing or turning left or right, a person urgently needs to pass tests and come to a consultation with the endocrinologist. But to say something, he can only after research. Are these symptoms of acute thyroiditis? Treatment will be prescribed clearly by diagnosis.
Therapy is based on the intake of certain drugs, such as thyroxine hormone, replacing the missing level. Is the reception of this hormone dangerous? The thyroxine, which is produced by modern pharmacological companies, fully corresponds to the human body and does not contain any foreign proteins. Therefore, take his patients every morning and in the dose that corresponds to the weight.
What else should I do to improve my health? First of all, you need to get rid of the stressful situation, otherwise the iron will continue to deteriorate. Prolonged inflammation sometimes leads to the fact that the thyroid gland completely ceases to perform its functions. Then the doctors recommend an operation to remove the gland. Although in fact you can just continue to take hormones without resorting to surgery.
However, if the compression of the neck structures starts, which already strongly prevents swallowing, then the operation is prescribed necessarily. Another reason for mandatory surgical intervention is a detected abscess during the diagnosis. It needs to be opened and drained. That is, the liquid in the middle of the abscess must flow out.
Subacute thyroiditis is treated hormoneally throughout the year. If a purulent thyroiditis is diagnosed, hospitalization is necessary. The patient will have to undergo a course of antibacterial therapy. We need antihistamines and treatment aimed at detoxifying the body if the infection is already bleeding.
Proper nutrition with thyroiditis
Nutrition for thyroid problems should be fractional. The break between meals should be 2 or 3 hours. What can not be eaten, and what needs to be consumed when the gland needs help? The diet is planned in such a way that during each meal there were a lot of vegetables, greens, root vegetables. Fruits are needed, replenishing the body with micronutrient stocks.
Every day you need to take products containing selenium. It is found in seaweed, tomatoes, champignons, cereals. But most of all this component in Brazil nuts. Seaweed, in addition to selenium, contains one more microelement, iodine, necessary for inflammation of the thyroid gland. After a decrease in organ activity leads to a decrease in the absorption of iodine.