Why do the toes grow together? Fused fingers on the legs of a newborn: reasons
It's great if the baby was born healthy! But sometimes parents are surprised to find him and strange defects. Take, for example, the fused fingers on the legs of the newborn. The reasons for this pathology can sometimes be explained by the fact that in their genus this special sign has been passed down from generation to generation, but sometimes it is difficult to understand what triggered the development of a defect. About what is syndactyly( fusion of the fingers of the upper or lower extremities), and why it develops, we'll talk in our article.
Syndactyly occurs infrequently
The fused fingers on the legs and hands of the child are rarely recorded - in one case, 2-3 thousand newborns. And girls have it 2 times less often than boys. The most common are 2 and 3 fingers on the leg, or the middle and ring finger on the arm. Most often, such a fusion does not hurt the joints and tendons, making the problem only cosmetic.
And if the fingers on the hands, as a rule, subjected to surgical separation, the legs often do not touch, not seeing in the defect a particular hindrance to the development of the child( such a violation usually does not interfere with normal walking).However, in the presence of syndactyly in 60% of these children, the most common congenital pathology of the extremities is found - deformity of the feet, pseudoarthrosis, clubfoot, etc.
Fused fingers on the legs of the newborn: causes of the pathology of
What causes the appearance of syndactyly? The fact is that the fingers and toes of the baby are laid on the 4th-5th week of pregnancy, when the mother usually does not even suspect about it, and therefore does not limit herself in anything. Hence, there is a high probability that harmful factors can affect the fetus - X-rays, antibiotics, alcohol, smoking, etc. It is impossible to exclude the danger of severe consequences for the pregnant woman and her fetus from such diseases as influenza, parotitis or syphilis.
And the most common reasons for the newborn to grow fingers on the leg are heredity, which is passed from parents to children.
By the way, if a child has syndactyly even in an easy degree, it must be examined for genes and chromosome syndromes( Apert syndrome, Poland or Edwards syndrome), in which fisting of the fingers is one of the symptoms of serious developmental defects in the baby.
By the way, in medical practice there were also cases of acquired fusion of fingers as a result of chemical or thermal burn of the hand or foot.
About what to do if the baby has fused fingers on his legs and arms, we'll talk further, but for now there's a bit of theory.
How the pathology
is classified In medicine, the pathology we are considering is classified according to the state of the bones and the degree of adhesion. So, according to the kind of adhesion, syndactylya is soft-tissue and bone, and in terms of the size of the fusion, it is complete and incomplete.
Depending on how the fingers on the leg or arm grow together, syndactyly happens:
- skin membrane - between the fingers there is a membrane of skin( this kind of pathology is considered the easiest);
- cutaneous - between the fingers there is a dense skin with underlying soft tissues, most often along the entire length of the fingers;
- bone - fusion occurs at the level of phalanges, and they are usually underdeveloped or deformed;
- combined - there are several types of syndactyly( this form is considered the most difficult in treatment).
Diagnostics of syndactyly
As a rule, syndactyly is detected already in the first hours of a newborn's life, when examined by a neonatologist. If the toe grows toes on the leg, then the question of the need for surgery is usually not an acute one, and the parents have the opportunity to weigh the pros and cons of the surgical intervention.
In order to have a complete picture of the pathology, the baby should be shown to the pediatric surgeon and make a radiograph of the foot in two projections. This will determine the features of the defect and the condition of the bones and joints of the baby.
How Syndactyly is treated
And yet, regardless of why the toes grow together, the only way to treat this pathology is by surgical intervention.
The optimal age of the baby for this is 4-5 years. However, in the event that the terminal phalanges of the fingers are connected, it is better to perform the operation until the age of one year, in order to prevent uneven growth of the fingers and their deformation.
Operations to eliminate syndactyly are divided into 5 groups:
- Simple dissection in membranous fusion.
- Dissection using dermal plastics by local tissues.
- Cutting with the use of skin plasty with a full-layered or split skin flap.
- Dissection using combined skin plasty( using free autografts or local tissues).
- Operation in several stages, including bone, tendon-muscular and dermal plastic.
Which of the listed operations will be the most optimal, the doctor will decide, taking into account the nature and form of the pathology.
Postoperative period: how much does the finger grow on one's leg?
After the operation, the recovery period usually takes place at home. Limbs at this time need rest( for a month).It is necessary to comply with all the doctor's instructions, ensuring proper care for postoperative wounds.
They, to reduce the inflammatory process and get rid of scars, are smeared with ointment "Dermazin" or gel "Kontraktubeks", and after about 7 weeks, according to the appointment of a specialist, they begin to attend physiotherapeutic procedures. By the way, it is not necessary to hurry with this - let the postoperative wounds heal properly, so as not to cause the child pain during the new procedures.
In some cases, it is also assigned to wear struts from the turbo-bucket so that the seams do not grow on the operated fingers. Initially( for a month) they are worn constantly, and then put on only at the time of sleep.
It should be noted that if all the prescriptions are observed, you will soon forget about the problem we are considering( the child has fused fingers on his legs).The patient will recover quickly and without complications.
Despite the fact that cases of syndactyly nowadays have become more frequent, the researchers do not yet find sufficient explanations, the prognosis of the course of this pathology is mostly favorable. Modern methods of treatment can get rid of a defect, restoring all the functions of the hand or foot and correcting the deformation of the fingers.
If a child fuses his toes on the foot or arm, the operation allows to form normal interdigital spaces and at the same time to keep the mobility of the joints and the sensitivity of the fingers of the patient. That is, to save him from any difficulties connected with syndactyly.
Do I have to perform an operation with the syndactyly of the toes
Almost always, parents, having found out from their kid problems with fingers, begin to insist on an immediate operation. But if the fused fingers can really deliver not only aesthetic, but also physical problems, then in a situation where there is a defect on the legs, especially if the fingers are not deformed and normally bend, you can do without an operation.
If a woman's fused fingers on her legs can cause a lot of negative emotions, even unwillingness to wear open shoes or walk on the beach barefoot, then the child usually has no such problem and will not, of course, with the right attitude towards her. Many people live without experiencing any unpleasant sensations from the fused fingers. And for some, this special sign becomes also a peculiarity. As you can see, everything depends only on whether you accept yourself as you are.