What is passive and natural immunity?
The body's defenses work against pathogens, infections and viruses. Distinguish immunity passive when antibodies are already present and protect. An active one works when a person produces cells as a result of a reaction to an illness or a vaccine.
Types of defense mechanisms
The general opposition of the body to infections occurs under the influence of two components:
- passive immunity;
- active protective forces.
The barrier function against bacteria is the production of specific lymphocytes. The latter are quantitatively determined by laboratory methods. Immune passive is described by antibodies IgM, IgG.
Doctors use the term "avidity" - the strength of the bonds of antibodies with antigens. The characteristic is needed to determine the ability of the body to resist the current infection. With negative results, therapy is performed to increase passive artificial immunity.
Immunity passive is already present in the body, whereas the active component is produced by the body on the causative agent:
- cells are a virus or other infection.
Active immunity is divided according to the method of formation:
- is natural - antibodies are produced by combating pathogens;
- is artificial - occurs after the introduction of the vaccine.
Before infection, 2 barriers are built. Cells of natural immunity, wandering around the body, directly destroy bacteria. A non-immune system is a set of additional functions. This includes the skin, mucous membranes.
The main element of protection is located in the intestine. Mucous destroys harmful microorganisms that enter the body through the esophagus. Therefore, it is required to maintain a healthy state of the microflora.
The condition of internal mucous membranes is affected by many factors: full sleep, nutrition, illness, stress, heat stroke. When pathogens are still protected, antibodies begin to cope with foreign objects. Natural or acquired immunity becomes the final authority to cleanse the body of aggression.
Inactive protection of
Passive artificial immunity in humans begins to develop in the following cases:
- circulates gamma globulins in blood when serum is administered;
- antibodies were taken together with foreign blood by transfusion.
A similar condition is observed in newborns. Gamma globulins are transmitted to the child from the mother. The protective mechanism is developed only for those diseases and infections that the woman has already had or had been vaccinated against.
Passive artificial immunity differs from active in that it disappears with time. In newborns, the protective forces received from the mother are extinguished within six months. A similar effect is observed with the introduction of serum, the antibody is protected until the gamma-globulin cells circulate in the blood.
Ways of supporting the body
Active lifestyle increases immunity. Passive also reduces metabolic processes in the body and contributes to the population of pathogenic microorganisms. Negative effects have harmful substances: alcoholic beverages, tobacco smoke.
To increase the tone of the body use natural lactobacilli. Observe a therapeutic diet. Pharmacy drugs are selected together with an immunologist. Controlling the body can be done by laboratory tests on immunoglobulins. With chronic infectious diseases this measure becomes extremely necessary.
There are several types of activation of immunity against a specific disease:
- toxins - vaccination with toxins of bacteria( drug treatment is effective against tetanus, whooping cough);
- inactivated vaccination - is more often carried out from influenza, based on killed bacteria, also works against tick-borne encephalitis, tetanus;
- living cells of infections - weakened microorganisms activate the defenses of the body.
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Natural passive immunity is formed on a specific disease, poison, virus. The organism adapts in changing conditions, the protective cells secrete lymphocytes. Artificial antibodies are injected and there is a short time.
With natural transfer of antibodies to the child from the mother, the baby acquires protection for up to six months. Given the careful attitude of parents to infants, the risks of getting sick at an early age are reduced.
Mothers pass protection to children from a set of transferred infections. This occurs during the formation of the fetus, as well as during breastfeeding. Therefore, doctors do not recommend early abandonment of natural feeding, because it is in the first months of the formation of immunity.