How does pertussis in adults
Pertussis is considered an acute infectious disease transmitted by air. It is referred to as anthroponosis. Pertussis in adults is extremely rare, as anti-pertussis combined vaccine, introduced at an early age, is developed and successfully used against this disease.
Cause of the disease
The disease is caused by a gram-negative microorganism - pertussis, which enters the human body by inhaling it with air, in contact with a sick person. This microorganism is very unstable in the environment, quickly dies when exposed to disinfectants and ultraviolet rays. The initial localization of the pathogen is the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and the nasopharynx. Dangerous is not the stick itself, but the toxin produced during its life. It exerts the strongest irritating effect on the mucous membrane and cough center, causing painful attacks of coughing, spasm of the bronchi and vessels. This can lead to oxygen starvation of tissues. In its course, whooping cough in adults does not differ much from its manifestations in children. However, in infants, skeletal muscle cramps can develop.
Clinical manifestations of the disease
The latent period of the disease accounts for about a week. During this time, the causative agent of the disease grows in the mucous membrane and throws the toxin into the blood. Further, the first signs of the disease begin to appear: a slight increase in body temperature and a slight dry cough, which is subsequently intensified. The initial stage of pertussis lasts about two weeks. The next stage of the disease is called spastic. She got her name thanks to bouts of a strong and painful cough. Pertussis cough has its own characteristic features. Cough thrusts wavy, serial, end with a sigh with a characteristic whistling sound. Seizures are repeated many times and often end with a urge to vomit. The patient thus is strongly exhausted, the face of such patient podoznoe and puffy, because of strong straining can appear hemorrhages in sclera of eyes. If pertussis in adults is severe, clonic convulsions may occur. The spastic period is from one to five weeks. Then comes a period of gradual recovery, in which the intensity and duration of cough decreases, the general condition is normalized. Disease, depending on its course, has several forms: light, moderate and heavy. Whooping cough in adults, especially those who have previously received appropriate immunoprophylaxis, can have a blurred form of flow, in which the symptoms are not so pronounced. In such cases, the diagnosis is made on the basis of excretory isolation using immunological diagnostic methods.
Severe complications of the disease are pertussis pneumonia, emphysema of the lungs and mediastinum.
Treatment of whooping cough in adults
Usually uncomplicated forms of the disease are treated at home. Adult person is hospitalized in the presence of severe course and development of complications, as well as for the purpose of epidemiological safety. Treatment in these cases is carried out in an infectious disease hospital where the patient's history is established. Pertussis is treated mainly with antibiotics of the penicillin series and macrolides. The course of therapy is from seven to ten days. With success in the initial stage of the disease, a specific antitussive immunoglobulin is used. When strong and protracted attacks of cough use antitussive drugs of central action. If hypoxia of tissues and organs is expressed, the patient is given oxygen. It is very important to have a long stay in the open air and take multivitamins. Physiotherapeutic procedures, inhalation of a soda solution are effective.