Intoxication syndrome: symptoms and treatment
Intoxication in literal translation means "poison in the body."During life, every person, regardless of age and sex, at least once faced with such a condition. The reason for intoxication syndrome is the excess in the body of substances of toxic origin. This ailment can occur in both adults and children.
Kinds of intoxication
Depending on the causes of excess toxins in the blood, there are several types of intoxication:
- Exogenous - damage to internal organs by toxins that have got into the body from the external environment. The routes of entry are different. For example, food or water with insufficient purification or processing, long-term use of medicines. It is possible to get toxins by airborne droplets.
- Endogenous - for some reason toxins are produced by the body itself. Most often develops with bacterial and viral infections, injuries, malignant neoplasms.
Regardless of the type of intoxication syndrome, there is a failure in the vital activity of the body, which is most pronounced in children.
Causes of Intoxication Syndrome
The most common causes of intoxication are:
- External environment. Various chemical elements and their compounds that cause air pollution, animals, plants and microorganisms, in which toxic substances are produced.
- Products processing certain substances that penetrate the body through the digestive system, by breathing, by contacting the mucous membranes of a person.
- Products with toxic effects in the presence of damaged tissues.
- Excess of toxic substances due to improper functioning of the body, for example, an overabundance of hormones.
- As one of the causes - metabolic disorders.
One of the determining factors is the amount of toxin in the blood. It depends on him, and in what form will the common intoxication syndrome. It is important to know what signs mean the presence of pathology in the body.
Acute intoxication syndrome: signs of
Symptoms in children and adults are practically the same. Intoksikatsionny syndrome in children, usually occurs in a more acute form, especially if the child was born before the due date or has a reduced immunity. The most common signs:
- Severe weakness.
- The child begins to be capricious.
- There is a worsening or lack of appetite.
- Increased body temperature.
- Muscle Pain.
- Spastic pain in the abdominal cavity.
- In some severe cases, the child may have a lack of facial expression.
- Accelerated heart beat.
- Chills due to pressure drop.
The diagnosis of children is complicated if the child currently does not understand what is happening to him and can not describe the symptoms of the disease. Also, the diagnosis becomes more complicated if it is still too small to tell about the signs of pathology on its own.
Symptoms of intoxication syndrome at chronic stage
These symptoms occur if the child was not provided with timely medical care at the acute intoxication stage or it did not help enough:
- Rapid fatigue.
- Bad memory. The child can forget that they happened a few minutes ago.
- Dizziness, right down to unconsciousness.
- Severe headaches.
- Problems with the gastrointestinal tract( diarrhea continues or constipation occurs).
- Drowsiness or insomnia.
- There are problems with skin, as well as with nails and hair.
- There may be a constant unpleasant odor, both from the mouth and the child's body.
At this stage, the child is difficult to diagnose and help at home, as chronic intoxication has less pronounced symptoms, like acute. It is difficult to treat and has serious consequences.
Several stages are distinguished during the intoxication syndrome:
- Hidden. At this stage, the toxic substance only penetrates the body and begins to spread until the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease. If at this time to notice the first signs of intoxication, then to prevent the development of a further process is very easy.
- Active stage. This is the period of the strongest toxin action. There is an overwhelming majority of the symptoms of the disease, and the treatment usually begins at this very moment.
- Stage of late manifestation of intoxication syndrome. At this stage, the toxic substance is no longer present in the body, but because of its negative effects, the symptoms still persist, and the treatment requires continuation.
- Recovery phase. Has a different duration and depends on the type of toxin, its amount in the body and the disorders that it caused.
Each stage has its own time period, which depends on the age of the child, the strength of the body's resistance to toxic substances and timely assistance.
How to diagnose intoxication syndrome
The first symptoms in children can begin to manifest after 10-15 minutes and continue their development up to 15 hours, depending on the type of toxin and its quantity. In such situations it is better not to engage in treatment at home. The doctor's call is simply necessary, because to determine the stage and severity of the syndrome, only the clinical picture that the child's parents see is not enough. The exact level of intoxication can only be determined with the help of special medical and laboratory examinations in stationary conditions.
Treatment of pathology
The child's organism is more susceptible to toxic substances than an adult. Poisonous substances are absorbed into the blood and spread in children much faster. The effectiveness of therapy and the outcome of the disease largely depend on the timely diagnosis.
Treatment of intoxication syndrome is the elimination of the cause that caused this disease. It should be understood that the main goal is to destroy the toxin and accelerate the process of its removal from the body. Here a competent approach is important, since incorrectly selected treatment or self-medication can only exacerbate the situation. If this happens, then the intoxication syndrome from the acute stage will pass into the chronic one.
At home, within the framework of pre-medical care, the following actions are applied:
- Gastric lavage. This is the first and main help in the removal of the syndrome. Thanks to the washing, you can remove food and toxins from the digestive tract, which have not yet penetrated into the blood. It is done quite easily: take 1-2 liters of boiled warm water with the addition of one teaspoon of baking soda, or a very weak solution of manganese. At this stage, the child should be persuaded to drink this amount of fluid.
- Vomiting is required. To do this, you need to insert one or two fingers into your mouth and apply pressure to the root of the tongue. Carry out the procedure several times until the water begins to come out clean and free of leftovers. It should be noted that this procedure should be carried out only with food intoxication and children after five years.
- The procedures for washing the stomach and calling for vomiting should be approached very responsibly. An illiterate approach can lead to negative consequences.
- Give a child a drink from a group of sorbents. They reduce the effect of toxins and promote their removal from the body.
- Obligatory drinking is mandatory. It is not necessary to force the child to drink in large quantities at a time. It is desirable to drink often and in small portions - one or two tablespoons every few minutes is enough. You can use lightly sweetened water or loose tea as a liquid.
- It is important to know that in no case should the child be fed until the active stage of the disease passes. Then you can give a little crackers. And only the next day you can give food that will not contain fatty, sweet, salty, sharp, acidic foods. Food should be neutral and sparing.
At any stage of the disease, it is better to call an emergency doctor who will determine the condition of the child and be able to provide qualified counseling and assistance. In any case, it is desirable to place such a patient in a hospital environment where the physician can prescribe and calculate the dosage of the necessary drugs.
Prevention of intoxication
The disease is always easier to prevent than cure. Therefore, the first thing that is required is a timely warning of poisoning with poisons or toxic substances:
- The child should be taught personal hygiene, in particular, to monitor the cleanliness of the hands.
- Explain that you can not consume unfamiliar berries and plants, household chemicals, medicines, etc.
- Do not inhale unfamiliar smells and powders.
- Try to exclude from the diet products with pronounced flavors.
- Observe the daily routine.
- Do not overwork.
Adherence to preventive measures is the best way to protect the child from negative consequences.
Parents to note
The main task is to find out the first negative symptoms on time and in order to avoid negative consequences, call a doctor immediately!
The same goes for adults. Intoxication syndrome, the symptoms of which can be dangerous, must be treated at the first manifestation of symptoms.