Three-fold fracture: the causes, symptoms and characteristics of treatment
Trehkladozhechny fracture is considered a very common injury. Excessive force on the integrity of the bone apparatus of the lower limb is the only cause of pathology. The consequences of a fracture in an advantageous number of cases do not go unnoticed, pursuing the victim for the rest of his life.
Who risks getting a broken ankle?
The "peak" of statistics for the greatest number of injuries falls, as a rule, for the winter season. The risk group includes not only the elderly, but also lovers of outdoor activities, rock climbing, skating. The process of recovery is most often delayed by several months. Damage to the ankle is often accompanied by a shift in bone fragments, subluxations and ligament ruptures. Self-treatment in case of fracture is not the most suitable method, it is unlikely that it will be possible to quickly get on its feet in a literal sense, and therefore, after receiving trauma, it is necessary to seek professional medical help as soon as possible.
Fracture in the ankle: types of tri-articular lesions
When the ankle is damaged, fractures can occur in several species. When force action on the limb from the top down and squeezing the ankle inside, a supination-adduction fracture occurs. A pronation-abduction type of injury occurs when excessive forcible twisting of the ankle bones in the outer side. In the case of a profound thorough eversion of the foot, a rotational fracture at the joint level will become a natural result. Damage affecting the integrity of the tibia - isolated flexion and extension injuries, for which a characteristic feature is a triangular bone fragment.
In severe cases, there are combined fractures, which are a number of signs of previous types of damage. These include the three-fold type of fracture - the most dangerous, because it touches both ankles and tibia. Its characteristic features are ruptures of the ligamentous apparatus, rupture of blood vessels and damage to nerve endings.
Damage factors: why do the ankles break?
Three-hip fracture with displacement and subluxation is a complicated form of limb injury that affects the choice of treatment and the duration of rehabilitation.
The reasons for the integrity of the ankle bones in most cases are:
- joint twisting;
- foot turn;
- excessive strain on the joint in the ankle;
- intensive extension and flexion of the joint.
Another very common cause of the three-lumbar fracture is not so much their power effect on bone tissues, as the fragility due to a reduced content of calcium, useful trace elements. Deficiency of valuable substances that ensure the strength of human bone - the result of inefficient nutrition, abuse of coffee and alcohol. It is rare to cause a fracture of the ankle is capable of rotting the joint, provoked by osteomyelitis. The disease occurs, as a rule, in childhood, and inevitably leads to disability of the patient.
The main symptoms in the trauma of the limbs
In order to provide competent medical assistance in the trauma of ankle localization, it is first important to learn how to determine the fracture. There is no time for reflection, but it is necessary to act urgently, therefore, it is necessary to diagnose the nature of damage to one who was at the moment of trauma with the victim. Recognizing the three-fold fracture is not an easy task, but everyone can cope with it. The first signs of such a serious injury to the limb are:
- sharp pain that does not recede for an instant;
- when trying to step with a foot pain syndrome is amplified;
- swift development of puffiness;
- appearance of bruising;
- blueing of the extremity in the region of the entire ankle.
Other signs of ankle damage in three places
Internal hematomas appear after a while, spreading all over the foot, toes. Other symptoms that indicate the presence of a three-ligament injury include the following manifestations:
- skin tension over fragments of broken bones;
- change in the correct shape of the ankle;
- pronounced deformation of the foot;
- severe movement in the fingers.
If the above symptoms coincide with the patient's feelings, it is necessary to urgently provide him with complete rest and immobilization of the broken ankle joint. The faster the patient is taken to the emergency room, the higher his chances of conducting a detailed diagnosis and the appointment of appropriate treatment.
Displacement and subluxation: complication of
fracture If a three-fold fracture with displacement is visually difficult to recognize even to a traumatologist, suspicions of subluxation may occur in the specialist long before the results of the MRI study. By the way, this diagnostic procedure is mandatory for such a complex fracture of the ankle. For this type of injury, there is a significant rupture of the deltoid ligaments of the ankle joint. Get a fracture with a subluxation much easier than most readers think. The most common "scenario" of injury is the fall on the ice, during which:
- stop is turned to the outside;
- tension of the deltoid ligament occurs followed by its breakage;
- because of high pressure the lateral ankle fractures;
- excessive mobility of the talus leads to an increase in the force of action on the tibial and fibular bones.
How is the ankle treated, how long does the rehabilitation last?
Three-lobe fracture with subluxation is one of the most "popular" causes of surgical intervention in the internal tissues of the lower limb. With the displacement of bone fragments and the impossibility of their manual reposition, the patient is also prescribed an operation. Trehlidozhechny fracture can be cured only in one way - leading to an anatomically correct appearance of the ankle. For this purpose, for more than 2 months, patients are prescribed to wear plaster casts. The injured leg is fixed by the doctor, leaving it immovable - an indispensable condition for ensuring the fusion of bones. After 4-5 days, the patient is given special stirrups that allow him to move around. During the first 2-3 months the patient's working capacity is gradually restored and soon the patient will be able to return to the habitual way of life.
In order for rehabilitation after a three-knee fracture to be successful in a short period of time, doctors perform a reposition of the broken parts of the bone, make up all the fragments together and tightly fix them. The procedure can take place with both closed and open fractures.
Intervention of surgeons in the medical process
It is impossible to independently engage in the repair of a damaged limb area, as unprofessional actions can only lead to a worsening of the situation. The procedure is performed with local anesthesia, and upon its completion, the final X-rays are taken and the broken leg is fixed in a plaster bandage.
If the bone is not repositioned, it is possible to perform the operation. To prevent wrong fusion of the ankle and tibial( fibular) bones, one should not be delayed with performing surgical intervention, therefore the operation is done most often on the 3-4 day after the injury. To effectively fix the back and front ankles, surgeons use various instruments( knitting needles, screws, nails, etc.).At the end of the procedure, drainage is introduced into the patient's leg and gypsum is applied.
Recovery and rehabilitation after an ankle fracture
Treating a three-aisle fracture, in fact, is a prolonged immobilization of the limb, accompanied by the intake of appropriate medications. To pick up preparations for the prompt coalescence of the damaged bones, restoration of wiry and soft tissues the doctor should. After surgery, the patient is also prescribed a course of antibacterial drugs to prevent the inflammatory process. As a rehabilitation for a triple-lumbar fracture, the patient is prescribed physiotherapy, massages and complexes of special exercises that help restore the limbs to the previous mobility, to rid themselves of the haunting pain syndrome.
A couple of words should also be given to the consequences of an ankle fracture, waiting for an injured one. The risk of developing deforming arthrosis remains high enough even with qualified treatment and persistent rehabilitation. In some cases, patients have not been able to fully recover, leading to a permanent disability.