Emotionally unstable personality disorder: types, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Emotionally unstable personality disorder most often lies in wait for women. Among the entire population, it can be found in 2% of cases. Patients who are outpatient in a psychiatric hospital - 10%, and those hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital - 20%.
How does the disease manifest itself?
In ICD 10, emotionally unstable personality disorder is characterized as imbalance, inability to self-control and increased impulsiveness.
The disease is observed in people as young and older. A person's self-esteem is violated, he can not form relationships with other people and is often in a state of nonexistence, or, in other words, affect.
In this disease patients:
- Feel constant solitude and make furious attempts to avoid it.
- They have a sharp change of mood.
- They feel a sense of separation, loss, as a result of which their behavior, emotions, thinking and sensations inevitably change.
- Feel tremendous fear of change plans.
- Become angry and unbalanced, even with small separation intervals.
- They believe that if they remain alone, it will bring them immense harm. These feelings cause impulsiveness in behavior, which can lead to self-injury of the patient.
A person can so fiercely perceive as an effective reality, and to invent his own vision of our world.
How does interpersonal relationships evolve?
Relations with other people are unstable. They are accompanied by conflict situations.
Patients idealize their guardians or lovers from the first days of acquaintance. They want to constantly be with the object of desire and from the very first days demand entry into intimate aspects.
At the same time, the ideal quickly depreciates in their eyes. They easily begin to think that the person who was so close to them has grown cold and does not pay proper attention.
Their empathy is based only on the expectation that other people will begin to sympathize and satisfy all the desires and needs of the patient. If their opinions differ, then emotionally unstable individuals sharply change their views of those around them.
What is the expression of identification?
It is expressed in the instability of the representation of one's personality. Variable estimation of his "I" is expressed in the constant change of life goals and professional skills. For example, a good-natured person who asks for help for himself suddenly becomes vicious and vindictive. But he always fights for the truth.
Although in most cases these individuals consider themselves evil and aggressive, and sometimes even think that they do not exist on this planet. This is mainly manifested when a person does not feel his importance and support from the people around him.
Individuals susceptible to this disease are impulsive in circumstances related to risk. They can:
- get involved in gambling;
- does not know the account of money and spend it irresponsibly;
- consumes a lot of food and does not feel full;
- use psychotropic substances;
- to change a lot of sexual partners;
- to take risks while driving a car.
People with an emotionally unstable personality disorder have a predisposition to actions that can deprive them of their lives. In this case, suicidal attempts are constantly repeated.
Despite the fact that patients like to make demonstrative attempts to commit suicide, only eight percent are getting out of life. The actions of the others are aimed at making people who are with them close to pay attention to them. They can cut themselves or deliberately create burns on their bodies. If attention is not paid and there is no help, attempts to deprive oneself of life continue.
They can be caused by an impending separation from the object of love. In this case, suicidal attempts give relief for a while, especially if the patient is heard and understood, and also these actions made the other person realize that he was wrong with the patient.
Symptoms of an emotionally unstable personality disorder
People related to this type are characterized as follows:
- Constantly in tension.
- Their state of health is oscillatory.
- A person can look depressed and depressed for several days.
- Irritation and anxiety can last from a few hours to several days.
- Patients feel emptying and therefore constantly try to do something.
- Sometimes, in quite ordinary surroundings, they express violent anger, sarcasm and verbal outbursts. At the same time, they immediately feel an acute sense of guilt for their actions and thus seem to themselves even more vicious.
- Patients are carefree, cheeky and at the same time secretive.
These people are capable of destroying everything when the goal is almost reached. For example, to drop out of school before obtaining a diploma or to break off relations at the time when everything is well established.
Attacks of a state in which a person feels himself outside of reality, in a strangely altered world, or feels that his mind has separated from the body, arise precisely during periods of abandonment and loneliness. But as soon as care resumes, these symptoms disappear.
The most frequent personality disorders
The most frequent and common emotionally unstable personality disorders are:
- Manifestation of bulimia( after eating a person gets rid of it, artificially inducing vomiting).
- Stress disorders after injury.
- A sharp change of mood.
- At a young age there is no control over impulses.
- Suicide attacks. Most often occur at an early age. The older a person becomes, the less he is persecuted by attempts to settle scores with life.
- Strong relationships with people and impulsive disorders persecute a person throughout his life.
These manifestations are especially pronounced among people who abuse psychotropic active substances.
Those who apply for help in specialized medical institutions are cured. Improvements come already in the first year of therapy.
What are the types of personality disorder?
There are two types of this disease:
- border type;
- impulsive type.
At the borderline, in addition to emotional instability, difficulties arise with the awareness of one's own image. A person does not feel his intentions and preferences, thereby striving to harm himself.
Self-esteem of the person is very overstated, that is not perceived by the surrounding properly. The patient is too arrogant and impatient.
In the second type, the personality is prone to impulsive manifestations and acts in all situations hastily, without thinking about the consequences. In response to the condemnation of the surrounding people, the patient shows rigidity and aggression.
Diagnosis of impulsive type
This type is characterized by the following manifestations:
- The propensity to act suddenly. Do not take into account the consequences of their actions.
- Relations with surrounding people are built on a constant conflict.
- There is anger and violence.
- Patients require immediate encouragement for their actions, otherwise they do not complete the task.
- An unstable mood, accompanied by constant vagaries.
Being surrounded by this type is difficult and unpleasant.
Diagnostics of the boundary type
For the boundary state, the following characteristics are distinguished:
- The person does not understand himself. He does not feel his own "I" and therefore can not decide what he really wants.
- The patient enters in disorderly relations, constantly changes partners.
- Directs all its energy to avoid loneliness.
- The patient is prone to suicidal behavior.
- He constantly feels a sense of uselessness and devastation.
If at a young age to seek treatment in a psychiatric clinic, then by the 40 years of life both relationships with other people and professional relationships are being established.
Edge type varieties
This type of pathology has several forms to which it has been divided for easier diagnosis of an emotionally unstable personality disorder. Here is their list:
- phobic form;
- is hysterical;
- is pseudo-depressant;
- is intrusive;
- is psychosomatic;
- is psychotic.
Let us dwell in more detail on each of them.
The patient's thoughts are constantly occupied with a variety of fears and anxieties. These feelings impose a certain imprint on the emotional state of a person.
People are able to exaggerate the problems and at the same time are removed from their decisions. They do not want to be responsible for anything.
This form characterizes people who like to dramatize to the public and have theatrical talents.
These patients achieve their goals by manipulating other people.
Their actions are quite active, or, conversely, a person looks too depressed, which in some cases can lead to suicidal actions.
In this case, the actions of people are different from the classical depression. People do not perceive themselves in reality and can not assess their actions. This form in some cases is a suicide.
Obsessive form of
In this case, patients are obsessed with concealing their mental disorders. To remove the internal tension, she gives out a huge number of ideas to the world.
In this disease, patients complain of somatic disorders of the cardiovascular system and the gastrointestinal tract. But at survey these problems are not revealed.
This is the most severe form of the disease, which includes specific personality disorders. Man is renounced from the real world. He raves, and he is haunted by hallucinations. As a result, all of his actions become aimed at self-destruction.
Treatment of impulsive type
With patients conduct individual or group therapy. Applied means aimed at suppressing impulsive states.
Gestalt therapy and behavioral therapy are also used.
Treatment of borderline type
It is very difficult to determine the border state sometimes even for several years. The doctor conducts a large number of studies and prescribes therapeutic treatment only after the clinical picture becomes clear.
The therapeutic process necessarily involves the procedure of psychotherapy.
The actions of the doctors are directed to:
- Return of the person to the real habitat.
- Ability of the patient to resist emerging stressful situations.
- Improving the patient's relationship with others.
- Fighting emotional imbalances.
During the whole treatment the patient should be surrounded by the care and love of people close to him.
Doctors use the following therapeutic approaches:
- Dialectic-behavioral. Negative patient settings are detected and replaced with positive ones.
- Cognitive-analytical. As a result of the actions of doctors, patients begin to understand their condition and learn to fight against its manifestations.
Treatment is chosen, depending on the individual characteristics of the patient.
Drugs for the treatment of personality disorders
Among medicines, there are:
- Neuroleptics. They struggle with impulsive explosions.
- Antidepressants. They are used most often, since they help to cope with the stresses and anxieties of the patient.
- Normotimics. They help to improve the patient's condition and improve his relations with the world around him.
More successful treatment is only at a young age. The older a person becomes, the harder it is to heal.