Catarrhal syndrome: first signs and treatment
Catarrhal syndrome assumes inflammation of the mucosa of the respiratory canals with the process of hyperproduction of secretion and activation of local protective reactions. Against the background of inflammation of the mucosa above the vocal cords, symptoms of rhinitis, pharyngitis or tonsillitis may occur. In the area below the vocal cords, the appearance of laryngitis, as well as tracheitis, epiglottitis, bronchitis and pneumonia is not excluded.
Diseases that are accompanied by catarrhal syndrome belong to the group of acute otolaryngological infections. Most often their main pathogens are various viruses, less often bacteria. Causes of catarrhal syndrome can be the effect of allergens and irritants of the catarrhal character. Very often the effects of various factors, for example, cold and viral, are expressed.
The main pathogens are considered to be viruses that have a high tropism in relation to certain parts of the respiratory canals.
What causes the ailment
The clinical manifestations of the catarrhal syndrome include the following manifestations:
• Acute rhinitis is an inflammation of the mucosa in the nasal cavity. Typical symptoms are sneezing with the separation of mucus from the nose and violation of nasal breathing. The process of mucus outflow on the back wall of the pharynx, as a rule, causes a cough.
• Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa. Typical for him are sudden sensations of perspiration with dryness in the throat, as well as soreness in swallowing. Qatar upper respiratory tract may be accompanied by fever, weakness, refusal to eat.
• Tonsillitis is expressed by local changes in the palatine tonsils, which have bacterial( often streptococcal) or viral etiology. For this condition, intoxication with hyperemia and edema of the tonsils, as well as palatine arch, tongue, and posterior pharyngeal wall is characteristic. Can be accompanied by loose overlapping in lacunae.
• Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx, in which vocal cords and subglottic space are involved. The first symptoms in this case are dry and barking cough with hoarseness.
• Epiglottitis serves as an inflammation of the epiglottis with a characteristic and pronounced disturbance in the work of breathing.
• Tracheitis. Disease is an inflammatory process of the mucosa of the trachea. Symptomatics in this situation is manifested in the form of a dry cough. Most often, with infectious diseases, there is a catarrhal syndrome.
• Bronchitis. This disease serves as a lesion of bronchial tubes of any caliber. The main symptom is coughing. At the beginning of the illness, coughing is usually dry, and after a few days it becomes wet and is characterized by an increase in sputum, which often has a mucous character. In the second week of illness, sputum produced with cough can acquire a greenish color due to an impurity of fibrin. Cough in this case can persist for fourteen days, and sometimes up to one month. Cough, as a rule, is delayed in the presence of adenoviral, respiratory syncytial, mycoplasmal and chlamydial factors. Symptoms and treatment in adults of acute respiratory disease and influenza are discussed below.
What are the main symptoms of the disease? When examining patients against the background of catarrhal syndrome, as a rule, the following phenomena are observed:
• The mucous nasal looks swollen and hyperemic. Often it can be covered with crusts.
• Tracheitis can be manifested by unpleasant sensations in the form of pain behind the sternum, a cough of varying intensity, which is dry or with some separation of sputum.
• Pharyngitis can be accompanied by a sore throat and a feeling of difficulty during swallowing.
• The mucosa is thickened and hyperemic.
• The main manifestation of laryngitis is the change in the tone of the voice, its hoarseness arises, speech can become difficult to distinguish. In rare cases, the voice disappears completely.
Qatar upper respiratory tract is able to spread to the lower regions. In this case, patients develop acute tracheobronchitis. To fully characterize the catarrhal syndrome in infectious diseases, a detailed examination of the pharynx is considered informative. An important condition is directional lighting by using a reflector or table lamp. Symptoms of catarrhal syndrome are very unpleasant.
An ailment that is of an infectious origin is usually very often combined with a rise in temperature. It is possible and the development of intoxication. Respiratory diseases can be viral, bacterial and mixed viral-bacterial. The most extensive is the first group, which includes influenza and other acute respiratory infections, which also includes mycoplasmosis. The second group of diseases combines bacterial catarrh of the upper respiratory canals, as well as associative viral elements, which complicate the pathology.
It should be borne in mind that in the course of diagnosis, taking into account the different approaches to treatment of patients, a preliminary nosological examination should be sought.
Almost always, the catarrhal-respiratory syndrome manifests itself in the group of acute respiratory infections. The leading place in the category of ARVI is influenza.
This disease is still considered an unsolved problem, due to the fact that the total number of people infected and infected( mainly during the epidemic period), the flu is superior to all the combined infectious diseases.
Flu, as a mass disease, has been known since ancient times. The first pandemic was registered in 1580.In the twentieth century, several epidemics that have become history have been described. One of them is known as "Spaniard", and the other is "Asian flu".During pandemics, the number of patients was estimated not by hundreds of thousands, but by millions. Its name was received in the eighteenth century from the French word "gripper", which means "grasping".
Influenza viruses are viruses that are divided into three genuses: "A", "B" and "C".The highest pathogenicity is influenza A.The main source of infection in this case is a sick person with a clinically expressed form of the disease. The mechanism of transmission of this infection, as is the case with most ARVI, is the airborne pathway of transmission of viruses. The susceptibility of people to this disease is absolute. This virus is very widespread among the population. This affects the fact that newborns are found to have received from the mother through the milk anti-influenza antibodies, due to which the temporary immunity to this infection is determined. Catarrhal syndrome in children from 3 years old occurs as often as in adults.
The influenza clinic varies significantly, depending on the age of the patient, the state of its immunity, the serotype of the virus, along with virulence and many other causes. Influenza can develop in a complicated or uncomplicated form. By the severity of its current, it can have a light, medium or heavy form.
Treatment of the catarrhal syndrome with influenza
As part of the flu treatment, patients are prescribed strict bed rest, vitaminized diet and frequent drinking, such as herbal tea, a raspberry drink( can be prepared from fresh berries or from ice cream, dried, canned).Tea with lemon and fruit juices also works great.
Of the antiviral drugs available today, doctors often appoint Remantadin. To reduce temperature, reduce headaches and muscle pain, the use of such classic drugs as "Analgin", "Ascorutin" and "Amidopirin" is suitable.
For patients suffering from influenza in severe form, as well as people weakened by concomitant ailments, the administration of influenza gamma globulin is recommended. Antibiotics doctors are appointed exclusively in cases of complications, as well as patients who have a serious illness. The use of antibiotics is considered advisable in the presence of severe concomitant diseases, for example, rheumatism, diabetes, tuberculosis and so on.
This disease can be prevented in many ways. Prevention of influenza is reduced to isolating patients from healthy people. It is necessary to frequently ventilate the rooms where the patients are. Do not interfere and wet treatment with a solution of chloramine. A good result can be given by dibazoloprophylaxis. In recent years, a live inactivated vaccine has been increasingly used, which is made on the basis of strains "A" and "B".Live vaccines are administered internally either orally, and also performed subcutaneously.
A wonderful method of preventing influenza are: .
- Quality food.
- I Do Sports.
These simple methods help to strengthen the immunity, which is required to resist the ingress of germs into the body.
This is the name of an acute anthroponous infection, which is caused by four types of viruses. It is transmitted by airborne droplets. The virus can be excreted with nasopharyngeal mucus. This is especially intense in the early days of illness during coughing and sneezing.
Parainfluenza accounts for about twenty percent of acute respiratory viral infections among adults and the same in children. Parainfluenza, as a rule, occurs all year round and is marked by a slight increase in the incidence in the cold season. The disease can begin with a slight rhinitis and is accompanied by a cough, dryness, a throat and subfebrile condition. The intoxication thus is expressed moderately or at all is absent. In the general picture of the disease, symptoms of laryngitis may predominate, which will be accompanied by hoarseness or hoarseness of the voice, as well as barking cough.
Consider how to identify acute catarrhal syndrome.
The procedure for laboratory diagnosis plays a crucial role in confirming the diagnosis of diseases accompanied by respiratory syndrome, which includes the following methods:
• Methods aimed at identifying pathogens.
• Techniques that detect specific antibodies in the patient's blood serum.
It should be noted that the immunofluorescence method is currently the most preferred in the catarrhal bronchitis syndrome, as it allows for precise morphological analysis with high specificity. This method is fairly simple to reproduce and provides the opportunity to get results in just a few hours. The method presented is widely applicable for the purpose of establishing specific antibodies in the blood serum of patients suffering from viral or bacterial ailments. During the diagnosis, patients are also given a chest X-ray.
Symptoms and treatment in adults with acute respiratory disease and influenza are often interrelated. Diagnosis of respiratory diseases is established under the condition that there is no clear predominance of a special nosological form. It involves not only the bacterial, but also the viral nature of the disease. Directly the term "ARVI" means the presence of a viral etiology of the disease.
The strategy for the treatment of the catarrhal-respiratory syndrome is determined according to the mechanism of pathogenesis, etiology and generality of clinical manifestations of pathology.
For etiotropic treatment, doctors use medicines from the category of adamantane series, for example "Rimantadine".Also widely used drugs from the group of indoles, as an example in this case, you can bring "Arbidol" and "Oseltamivir", which is often prescribed for influenza.