Fractures. Types of fractures and their consequences
Fracture is a complete or partial violation of bone integrity. Although bones in the human body are considered to be the strongest tissues, they also have a limit of strength. Fracture of the bone is not only a trauma, but also a consequence of serious diseases that affect the strength of bone tissue. All kinds of fractures have significant consequences, which should be told to all people so that they do not get lost at the most crucial moment.
The severity of a condition after a fracture depends on the degree of damage, as well as the number of broken bones. Such traumas lead to a long enough process of recovery of a person, which drags on for several months.
Fractures have their classification and are divided into types according to the following characteristics:
1. The cause of the fracture: pathological( as a result of the pathological process that exposes the bone to some changes) and traumatic( as a result of unexpected impact on the healthy bone tissue of mechanical force).
2. Severity of defeat.
3. Shape and direction of fracture: transverse, longitudinal, oblique, comminuted, fragmentary, helical, fractured, tear-off, punctured and, finally, compression fracture.
4. Integrity of the skin: open fractures( with a wound in the fracture site) and closed( without damaging the integrity of the skin).
Open fractures are also divided into primary-open and secondary-open fractures. These are the main types of fractures that exist today.
5. Complications. Fractures are complicated( traumatic shock, hemorrhage, damage to internal organs, infection, sepsis) and uncomplicated.
This classification of fractures is popular all over the world. Note that many fractures carry names in honor of the author who opened them. For example, the fracture of the College, the fracture of the Monteja, the fracture of Goleazzi and others.
Considering the types of fracture, you will need to elaborate on the complications after fractures, because every person can face such a problem.
One of the most dangerous complications is traumatic shock. It can not only cause fractures, but also all sorts of injuries: burns, injuries to internal organs, injuries. What is the traumatic shock? This is the total inability of the nervous system to cope with the pain. We still know from school that the nerves immediately signal to the brain that something has happened.
With traumatic shock, the stupor of the central nervous system, which is no longer capable of withstanding pain, comes. Pallor, lethargy, apathy, drowsiness - all these are the first signs of such a shock. Incredibly the pulse jumps from 120 beats per minute to 40. The entire body is instantly covered by a cold sticky sweat, which lacks any odor.
All kinds of fractures, if accompanied by traumatic shock, must be carefully, but very quickly determined. It is difficult to do this without a specialist, but even the simplest knowledge of anatomy can be useful. In any case, the first stage will be the treatment of shock( any types of fractures).How to do it:
1. Eliminating the causes that caused the shock.
2. Blood volume reimbursement.
3. Inhalation of oxygen.
4. Therapy with vegetotrophic drugs.
There are several first aid rules( until the ambulance arrived):
1. Stop the blood urgently!
2. If the weather is cold - cover the patient,
3. Constantly give a drink - in small sips, so as not to vomit.
Types of fractures are different, and all of them, to some extent, can be life threatening. And if the fracture of the arm or leg is tolerated fairly tolerably, then, for example, fracture of the bones of the nose or other small bones of our body is an unpleasant phenomenon and requires special intervention from medical workers.