Rabies: incubation period in people, symptoms and diagnosis
Rabies is one of the most serious infectious diseases that has a viral nature. There is a pathology with serious consequences for the nervous system and in most cases leads to the death of the patient. Call a person the appearance of this infection can bite the animal. But what smaller brothers can become the culprits of such a serious disease as rabies? The incubation period in a human for how many days does it last? Let's try to figure this out.
Animals - carriers of the rabies virus
To date, there are two types of rabies: natural and urban. The first is transmitted through wild animals - bats, foxes, wolves, jackals.
And the second carrier is considered to be domestic animals, but most often rabies is transmitted through the bite of an infected dog. How long does the incubation period of rabies occur in a person? How to recognize that an animal is infected with this virus?
Rabies in an animal: how to recognize?
The danger of infected animals is that they can begin to manifest the first signs of the disease only after a couple of months.
If we talk about rabies, the incubation period in humans is one, and in the animal it depends on the age and weight and can be from 7 days to a year. Determine this disease in animals can be on such grounds:
- Inadequate behavior. Wild animals can lose their sense of caution and approach people and people. And pets with rabies change their behavior - become more affectionate, lazy and sleepy.
- The appetite changes. An animal infected with rabies can eat inedible food, such as land.
- Abundant salivation and vomiting. These symptoms in rabies can appear in the animal very often. Violation of the swallowing process, the animals choking with food.
- Coordination is broken. The animal often staggers when walking.
- Aggression. This symptom may appear one of the last, and as a rule, after a couple of days the animal dies.
But what is the incubation period of rabies in a person after infection? What provokes the disease?
Causes of rabies
The causative agent of the disease is the virus Neuroiyctes rabid. A person becomes infected from the saliva of a sick animal, which enters the wound during a bite. The virus is transmitted through saliva. The most dangerous for a person are considered bites in the head and a hand.
After entering the wound, the virus spreads very quickly through all the nerve trunks and reaches the central nervous system, and after penetrating the periphery affects the entire nervous system. Breeding, the causative agent causes serious changes: hemorrhages, edema, changes in nerve cells.
With the accelerated development of the symptoms of the disease, a person dies very quickly, only an instantaneous response and the introduction of a vaccine in the first hours after a bite give a chance for survival. But how is rabies clinically manifested? How many people can last an incubation period?
Rabies: clinical manifestations of
In our age of technology, a vaccine has long been created, thanks to which the patient can quickly get rid of rabies infection, and clinical signs in this case - a rare phenomenon. But the disease can still come, and several factors can provoke it:
- Long absence of qualified medical care.
- Disorders in the vaccination regime.
- Self-completed vaccination period for an earlier scheduled period.
Most often, the patient's death is caused by ignorance of what needs to be done immediately after the animal's bite, and negligent attitude towards one's health. Most people just do not pay attention to the bite - the wound was treated, well, well. They do not even suspect that an ordinary shallow wound( at first glance) can cause a fatal illness, which will not be cured in a couple of days.
Such a disease as rabies( the incubation period in humans may have a different duration depending on the location of the bite) is very dangerous, and only an address to the doctor right after an animal attack and vaccination can save from death. But what signs should still make a person sound an alarm?
The first manifestations of rabies in humans
After the incubation period is over, and the virus has already multiplied enough in the body, you can notice the first manifestations of the disease. It is characterized by such symptoms:
- The patient is very worried about the wound. The place of the bite hurts, pulls, itches, and if a scar appears, it often swells and inflames more often.
- Body temperature rises and holds at 37 degrees.
- There is a severe headache, general weakness, nausea and even vomiting.
- If there is a wound in the face area, hallucinations may occur.
- There is a depressive state, anxiety, and maybe even irritability.
But it's worth remembering that there are rabies of several stages, and the symptoms in each of them are very different.
Mandatory has rabies incubation period in humans. Symptoms at this time are not yet evident. This stage proceeds without signs. It can last up to three months, although there have been cases when the incubation period in humans has dragged on for many years, but most of the time it does not exceed 12 months. Most patients because of the length of time sometimes even can not remember who and when they were bitten.
If the victim is bitten in the head or neck, the person does not immediately develop rabies in the symptoms: the incubation period may be just over a month and a half. A person bitten into a hand may not suspect anything wrong for much longer. And the further course of the disease can be divided into several main stages.
The main stages of rabies
After the virus enters the human body begins, if we talk about rabies, the incubation period in humans. The stages of the disease are different, they can rapidly change each other and differ in their symptoms:
1. Prodromal period. At this time, the rabies virus enters the central nervous system. This stage lasts from 2 to 10 days. At this time, the first signs of the virus appear: itching, tenderness at the bite site. These symptoms can be observed first, but there are also others:
- general malaise;
- sharp weight loss;
- is an intestinal disorder;
- feeling of anxiety;
2. Stage of excitation. During her illness, the entire CNS is already affected. Very pronounced at this time rabies in humans symptoms. The incubation period is long over, and all signs of a fatal illness are evident. Symptoms are very marked cramps, the patient can die immediately, as soon as this stage of the disease begins, or its manifestations will lead to death.
Violent and paralytic rabies often develop during the second stage of the disease. During this period, patients rapidly develop hyperactivity, anxiety, hallucinations. After a day all these symptoms will be accompanied by flashes of great anxiety. Patients become so aggressive that they begin to rush at people, tear their clothes and beat their heads against the wall. Some may have seizures( intense enough), and at one "perfect" moment, such an attack ends in paralysis.
3. The stage of paralysis. Paralyzed movements of the tongue, eye muscles, the temperature rises to 40 degrees, the pressure drops, and the heart begins to contract faster. The duration of this stage is different for all patients, but ends, as a rule, death on the background of damage to the cardiovascular and respiratory centers.
4. Death. It is very important to accurately determine when the brain of a person who has become rabies is dead. This can be done by biopsy or by determining the absence of blood flow. Very often many people mistaken some neurological symptoms for brain death.
Diagnosis of rabies in humans
This is another important issue that should be discussed in the framework of the topic "Rabies: an incubation period in humans."
Diagnostics should be carried out as soon as possible. First of all, it is determined when a person was bitten, whether the animal's saliva got into the wound. Clinical manifestations are mostly monotonous. In the blood, the number of lymphocytes increases, but there are no eosinophils. The smear-imprint, which is taken from the surface of the cornea, indicates the presence of an antigen produced for an infection that has fallen into the human body.
Treatment of rabies
If the patient has the first signs of rabies, he is placed in the infectious disease department. Conduct therapy to alleviate symptoms, while also using supportive treatment. Appointed pain killers, anticonvulsant, if necessary, sleeping pills, apply parenteral nutrition, as well as drugs that help to remove all the symptoms of rabies.
The most effective treatment for this pathology has not yet been invented. The only thing that can protect and prevent the development of such an unpleasant scenario, as rabies, incubation period in humans, post-exposure vaccine. This is the best method of prevention.
disease Only vaccination will protect a person from a rabies virus. The preventive course of vaccinations is mandatory for those who are directly connected with the risk of infection by the nature of their activities.
All animals that bite a person or behave too aggressively must be urgently taken to the veterinarian in order to conduct a survey and send to the quarantine zone for 10 days. If during this time the animal did not die, there is a possibility that he does not have rabies. The incubation period in humans,( prophylaxis is very important!) Differs in duration from that of animals, so it is possible to make a mistake with the diagnosis.
If suddenly an animal bites a person, then it is necessary to treat the wound. The bite area is cleaned with a soapy 20% solution. If the wound is too deep, then in this case, rinsing is done with a catheter, so that the water jet as deeply as possible gets inside. In no case can you stitches or cauterize it.
When should I not get vaccinated?
Urgent vaccine is given to a person if there are such symptoms:
- Bites, scratches, saliva ingress to an open wound or mucous from animals that are infected with rabies virus.
- Wounding by objects on which saliva or the brain of an infected animal may be present.
- Bites through clothing or in cases where it has been damaged by the teeth of an animal.
- If a bitten animal is killed within days of the bite. Bites of wild animals.
- Damage to the skin by a person infected with a rabies virus.
So, let's go back to the issue of injections, because it's not enough just to know how rabies show themselves, the incubation period in people.
Postcontact vaccine is administered immediately in a hospital or outpatient setting. A person can not be vaccinated if he was bitten by a pet, a bite was not applied to the neck, face or hands, if it was once. When a dangerous place is injured, the victim is given three vaccinations. This is necessary even if the bite was caused by a domestic pet, since it can be a carrier of the rabies virus, and the person will develop an ailment, and the animal will not.
For any animal that has bitten a person, it is necessary to follow 10 or even 14 days, and if there are first signs of rabies, urgently seek vaccination.
As it became clear from the above, it is better to get a vaccination against rabies than to allow the development of the disease, because the first symptoms can not immediately manifest, and the further development of infection can lead to serious consequences. Today, they have not yet invented a remedy that completely cured rabies. Treatment is carried out only with drugs that relieve symptoms and remove them. If you do not have time to get vaccinated in time, then rabies in most cases leads to a fatal outcome.