Pulmonary plague: symptoms in humans
One of the most dangerous diseases that took thousands of human lives for several hundred years, is the plague. Unfortunately, this infection exists and now, and from time to time in different countries of the world there are its outbreaks. In this case, a large number of people die. Especially dangerous is the pulmonary form of the disease, as it is extremely contagious.
Methods of infection with plague
This disease is considered very formidable, as it often leads to blood infection and death. It has been known since ancient times. Previously, the disease was terrifying people. They did not know what provoked her and how to cope with the terrible epidemics that devastated entire cities.
The causative agent of infection is the plaque. Science knows several varieties of this microorganism. Plagueland can transmit animals( rabbits, cats, camels, ground squirrels, rats). Also carriers are insect-bloodsuckers( mostly fleas).As a rule, animals die almost immediately after infection, or the disease passes in a latent form. Rodents( ground squirrels, groundhogs, jerboas) usually tolerate this form of the disease during hibernation. Plagiarism is a fairly stable microorganism. It can remain in the discharge of the patient( mucus, blood) and even in corpses for several months. There are four forms of the disease that this microorganism causes. These are such varieties as:
- Bubonic form.
- Septic plague.
- Skin Form.
- Pulmonary plague.
The last form is extremely heavy. Mortality rates for this type of infection are very high.
Types of pulmonary plague
There are two varieties of this infection:
- Primary pulmonary plague. This form is characterized by a short latent period - from one day to three days. The disease develops very quickly and manifests itself with pronounced symptoms. In the absence of adequate therapy, a person dies within two to three days after infection.
- Secondary form. Occurs as a complication in another type of plague. It develops gradually, at the beginning of the disease the symptoms are not pronounced.
Both varieties are characterized by similar features and are considered very contagious. This is because the pulmonary plague is transmitted from person to person.
Ways of infection of
There are several ways of transmission of the disease. These include the following:
- Airborne droplet( when interacting with an infected person).Patients pose a threat to other people, since during the most intense manifestation of symptoms they can transmit microorganisms to people during breathing, coughing and sneezing.
- Penetration of the causative agent of the plague into the lungs. You can get infected through personal belongings of the patient, for example cigarettes or dishes. Fortunately, this way of infection is infrequent.
- Other ways of infection. Pulmonary plague in humans can occur in the event that pathogens have entered the body through the connective shell of the eyes. This path of infection is also rare.
Secondary pulmonary plague occurs when microorganisms enter the respiratory system through blood or lymph fluid.
The stages of the disease
Primary pulmonary form of the plague flows in three stages:
- Latent stage. This is a short period( from several hours to several days) from the very moment of infection to the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease. At this stage, microorganisms actively multiply.
- The first stage. This is the period of the appearance of common signs of the disease. There are also specific signs of pulmonary plague, such as cough and inflammation.
- The second stage. This stage is characterized by the appearance of pathological processes in the lungs and serious breathing disorders. The patient in this period is extremely contagious.
Pulmonary plague is considered the most dangerous form of this infection, since even in the treatment of five to fifteen percent of patients die. The presence or absence of timely and effective treatment largely determines whether the patient has a chance to survive or not.
Symptoms of the disease
So, how does the pulmonary plague manifest itself? Symptoms in humans first appear common, characteristic of all forms of this infection. On the first day of illness, the temperature rises( up to 40 degrees and higher).There are painful sensations in the muscles, back and head, lethargy, nausea and vomiting( sometimes with an admixture of blood).Then the patient begins coughing, he feels a shortage of air, it is difficult for him to inhale. In pulmonary plague, symptoms occur such as breathing disorders( it becomes too frequent) and the passage of mucus. First cough in the patient is accompanied by expectoration of light, almost transparent sputum. Sometimes the secretions contain pus. Then in the sputum appears blood and foam, it departs very much. Usually on the second day of illness the patient's condition deteriorates sharply, and some during this period die due to serious violations of the heart and respiratory organs or as a result of the development of the shock state.
Diagnosis of the disease
It is quite difficult to detect such an infection as a pulmonary plague. This is due to the lack of signs inherent only in this disease. For example, symptoms such as severe coughing and separation of blood sputum are characteristic of tuberculosis, and it is difficult for doctors to distinguish between these types of pathologies. Also, the infection develops very quickly, and this makes it difficult to diagnose. In the presence of an outbreak in a locality, physicians carefully examine people with symptoms such as coughing and separation of bloody sputum. In such cases, patients with similar pathological phenomena are hospitalized and placed in separate wards. Doctors closely monitor them and monitor their condition. In order to identify the presence of a plague pathogen in the body, a special blood test is performed. Also under the skin are injected drugs, evaluate the patient's response to them and decide whether to vaccinate. In some cases, a person needs a re-inoculation. If necessary, physicians conduct laboratory studies not only of blood, but also of other biological material( urine, feces, vomit, sputum).
Since pulmonary plague is a disease characterized by rapid development, physicians begin treatment before the end of the diagnosis. Since this type of infection is extremely contagious, the patient is placed in a separate ward. Therapy includes antibiotics, measures to cleanse the body of toxins and the introduction of a special serum. In case of violations of the respiratory and cardiac muscles, doctors perform specific treatment. Additional therapy is also required if there is a threat of development of a shock state. Usually, in the absence of temperature and pathogenic microorganisms, the patient's blood is discharged from the hospital after six weeks of treatment. However, the person who survived the pulmonary plague should be under the supervision of doctors for three months.
Actions aimed at preventing this dangerous disease include the following:
- Assessment of the state of wild animals, setting restrictions on hunting them during outbreaks.
- Timely notification of people about epidemics and ways of infection.
- Vaccination of people with an increased risk of infection( hunters, biologists, geologists, archaeologists).
- When a person develops symptoms of a disease such as pulmonary plague, treatment and isolation should occur as soon as possible. Relatives and acquaintances of the patient are prescribed prophylactic antibiotics. They must also be in the hospital under the supervision of doctors for six days.
- All the patient's belongings must be treated with a special disinfectant solution.
- In the area where the epidemic was registered, it is necessary to carry out measures for the destruction of rats. Also exterminate sick animals living in the wild( hares, ground squirrels, marmots and so on).Quarantine is established on the territory where the outbreak is detected.
Since pulmonary plague is highly contagious, it is necessary to ensure that infection does not spread.