Dioscorea Nippon: description, application in medicine
Dioscorea Nippon is a medicinal plant that is a vine. It grows in the Far East and is extremely rare. The plant has many useful properties and is used to treat certain diseases. The most important thing is to collect the raw materials correctly and on time, and also to prepare the preparation on its basis. What is this plant and what does it have?
Brief description of the plant
Nippon Dioscorea is a perennial herbaceous liana. The length of the stems of this plant can reach up to 4 meters, but not more. The rhizome is horizontal. Its length can be about two meters, and the thickness of 3 to 4 centimeters. From the main root, hard additional roots leave.
Stems curly, herbaceous and practically without greens. According to the form of the foliage, it is broadly ovoid, it is located alternately, three-seven-lobed, attached by small cuttings. It is worth noting that Nippon dioscorea is a flowering plant. His buds blossom in the summer, in the second half. The plant is dioecious, so its flowers are same-sex. They are assembled in semi-zonotics. Such inflorescences form axillary brushes. As for the fruits, they have a three-legged cask in the creeper. They ripen in late August - early September.
Microscopy of Diophoresis of Nippon
Usually, the underground part of a plant is used as medicinal raw material. Microscopy of the rhizome of Nippon Dioscorea shows that this part of the creeper has a small cork layer. The bark consists of tangentially-elongated, shallow cells that have neodrevesnevshih shell. In some of these, a rafid of about 100 μm in length is encountered. Such cells are oriented along the whole rhizome. The endoderm of the raw material is not clearly defined. In the cylinder located in the center of the rhizome, collateral conduction beams are noticeable. On the periphery they are smaller, and in the center - rounded and large.
Parenchyma cells are polygonal. They fit tightly to each other. They also contain starch grains of a variety of shapes, as well as a diameter of 1.5-24 microns. Together with drusov often there are drops of fatty oil. The cell wall is lignified and has a large number of large pores.
Procurement of raw materials
The main medium of germination of this plant is Primorsky Krai. There is a liana in the southeast of the Amur Region and in the south of the Khabarovsk Territory. Dioscorea Nippon prefers to grow on the fringes and in the depths of broadleaf rare forests. You can meet her in the thickets of wormwood and shrubs, in valleys of small streams and rivers.
For the treatment of certain diseases in medicine, only the roots of Nippon Dioscorea are used. They can be harvested either in autumn or in spring. It is during this period that a large number of useful substances accumulate in the roots. Leaves and inflorescences can be collected only during flowering. Prepare, dry, and then store the raw materials in the usual way.
It should be noted that when collecting roots in place should remain more than 50% of all grown specimens. It is forbidden to dig up plants whose height is less than one meter. In the same place, repeated harvesting is allowed only after 20 years.
Chemical composition of plant
Roots and rhizome of Dioscorea Nippon contain the following substances:
- Steroidal glycosides. In the plant up to 80% contains tigogenin, diosgenin, dioscin.
During the vegetative growth period of lian, the concentration of these components is significantly increased. It should be noted that the seeds of Nippon Dioscorea contain fatty oil, a large number of vitamins and other organic compounds.
What are the properties of the plant
As pharmacognosy shows, Nippon dioskorea is used to combat certain diseases. How the basic substances of the rhizome act - steroid glycosides - have long been studied. The most valuable of their actions is antisclerotic. Numerous clinical trials have been conducted, as a result of which scientists have established that steroid glycosides, in particular diosponin, can reduce the deposition of lipoproteins with low density and hypercholesterolemia in the arteries, liver, skin and cornea of the organs of vision. Such substances can increase the ratio of compounds such as cholesterol and lycytin. Diosponin positively affects the cardiovascular system as a whole, it helps to lower blood pressure, and also expand peripheral blood vessels. Preparations based on Nippon Dioscorea have anti-sclerotic and diuretic action.
How do drugs based on the plant
The secret of the action of drugs based on Nippon dioscorea is simple enough. Saponins, part of the plant raw materials, combine with cholesterol, not only in the gastrointestinal tract, but also in the blood vessels. Molecules thus bound are easily excreted from the body. Due to this, the accumulation of cholesterol plaques on the walls of the vessels is prevented.
These substances have another unique property. Getting into the body, saponins practically do not bind to the molecules of useful cholesterol, which is necessary for the development of sex and other hormones. As a result, the output is mostly "bad".
What you need to take into account
Saponins contained in the roots of Nippon Dioscorea can enhance the effect of any drug that has a hypnotic effect. Such glycosides make breathing deeper, lower arterial pressure, allow to restore sleep phases, slightly increase the amplitude of heartbeats.
Such saponins have a low level of toxicity. This is another feature of them. However, such compounds can cause severe irritation of the mucous membranes.
Preparations based on a plant
In a photo of a dioscorea, the Nippon looks unusually beautiful. In traditional medicine, the plant is not used in its pure form. On its basis, preparations are made. At the moment, there are only a few such medicines: "Diosponin" and "Polisponin."You can not get drugs from other varieties of Dioscore.
It should be noted that such medications are prescribed not only for the detection of common atherosclerosis, but also for coronary and cerebral atherosclerosis at the initial and at more pronounced stages. Such drugs have been widely used in the presence of diseases of the gallbladder and baking, as well as hypertension.
From what ailments
As already mentioned, preparations based on this plant help with atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, gall bladder and liver diseases. Tincture dioskorey Nippon allows you to eliminate discomfort with exacerbation of chronic gastritis. In addition, this drug increases the secretory function of the stomach. The intake of Nippon Dioscorea preparations is indicated with:
- of hormonal insufficiency;
- radiation sickness;
- of severity in the stomach and bitterness in the mouth caused by disturbance of the digestive system;
- chronic fatigue;
- ischemic heart disease;
- liver disease;
- obesity and so on.
How to prepare a decoction of
In folk medicine, Nippon dioscorea is used as a tincture and a decoction. If there are no drugs based on such a medicinal plant, then it is possible to prepare it at home. The main thing is to observe proportions. There are several recipes.
To prepare the decoction, grind 20 grams of dried roots of Nippon Dioscorea and brew them with 200 milliliters of boiling water. The product should be thawed on a water bath for half an hour. After this, the product must be cooled, drained and diluted with boiled water to the original volume. Take the broth should be up to 4 times a day for 2 tablespoons after meals. Drink the drug is recommended milk or kissel. This avoids irritation of the mucous membranes.
Recipes for tincture and infusion
To prepare the tincture, 70% alcohol is required. Prepares the tincture from the rhizome. One part of the plant raw materials should be poured with 5 parts of alcohol. Insist the drug is within 10 days, shaking several times a day. Ready-made preparation is recommended to strain and take from 30 to 40 drops before meals. To get the desired effect of such techniques during the day should be three.
You can prepare infusion from the flowers of a plant and leaves. To do this, you need to boil 20 grams of crushed raw material with 200 milliliters of boiling water. To insist a medicine costs or stands within 15 minutes on a water bath. Finally, the preparation should be cooled and filtered. Take this infusion is recommended up to 4 times a day for 2 tablespoons after meals.
Who should refuse
Dioscorea Nippon - a medicinal plant. Drugs on its basis, like many drugs, have contraindications. Apply them is not recommended for:
- chronic diseases of the intestines and stomach accompanied by an inflammatory process.
With extreme caution, preparations based on Nippon dioscorea should be taken after a heart attack or stroke.