Lymphatic leukemia chronic: symptoms and clinical signs of the disease
Lymphatic leukemia is a disease in which a tumor of lymphatic tissue develops, the cells of which are mature lymphocytes. Most often, the disease affects elderly or middle-aged people. The increase in lymphocytes occurs in the liver, spleen, as well as in lymph nodes.
The pathology of the disease is manifested in the formation in the bone marrow of the red color of the yellow areas. The lymph nodes of all areas of the body increase sharply, which merge into large dense or soft packets. At the same time, the amygdala and lymphofollicles of the intestine are increasing. Lymphocytic leukemia causes an increase in the spleen and kidneys. In many organs: leukemia infiltration is noted in the myocardium, mediastinum, mucous membranes and serous membranes.
The clinical picture is as follows. For many years, only an increase in the blood of lymphocytes can occur, gradually there is an enlargement of the lymph nodes in the armpits, on the neck, then in the groin, abdominal cavity, mediastinum. There are typical for all leukemia common nonspecific signs: weakness, increased sweating, fatigue. In patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, significant infiltration is noted in the place of mosquito bites. Multiple bites lead to severe intoxication. A frequent complication of the disease becomes herpes zoster. Possible development of exudative pleurisy. Often there is lymphocytic infiltration of 8 pairs of cranial nerves, as a result of which there is a noise in the ears, hearing is weakened. Because of low antibody titers immunity is strongly inhibited.
Acute lymphatic leukemia, flowing into chronic is accompanied by infectious diseases of staphylococcal nature( tonsillitis, bronchopneumonia).Characteristic manifestations of autoimmune reactions, thrombocytopenic and hemolytic states. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, death most often comes from infection, the autoimmune nature of complications, increasing exhaustion, anemia. In the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, symptoms appear in the sarcoma of the lymph nodes, most often in the terminal stage. There is not only a rapid increase in lymph nodes, they become stony-dense, squeeze nearby organs located. As a result, there are swelling and pain, the body temperature rises.
At the first signs of the disease, the lymphocytosis in the blood formula is 40%, then gradually increases to 90%.But even the high content of leukocytes in the blood does not cause anemia, as the number of platelets is usually normal or slightly lower. A characteristic sign of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is the dilapidated nuclei of peripheral blood of lymphocytes. In the bone marrow, their number also increases.
The disease proceeds in stages: the initial stage, the stage of clinical unfolded manifestations, and the terminal terminal one. With lymphatic leukemia, the average life expectancy of the patient varies from 3 to 5 years, sometimes 10-15, rarely 20 years. Most often, patients die from complications. The diagnosis is made according to a picture of blood, for confirmation, bone marrow puncture is performed.
The prerequisites for the initiation of lymphocytic leukemia therapy are general deterioration of the patient's condition, a rapid increase in lymph nodes, spleen, liver, the development of cytopenia, a constant increase in the level of leukocytes. For treatment, the use of chlorobutin for 1 to 2 months is indicated, with resistance to this drug prescribed cyclophosphamide. Effective treatment with steroid hormones, however, they can cause an increase in leukocytosis in the blood. Lymphoid leukemia chronic is treated with a combination of cyclophosphamide preparations and vincristine-prednisolone. Localized spleen therapy is performed.