Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis refers to inflammatory diseases. This disease is characterized by a chronic character and affects the joints. As a rule, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is diagnosed in children under the age of sixteen.
The causes of the disease are not known, and the course of the disease is very difficult. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is a progressive disease involving internal organs in the process.
The disease is accompanied by asymmetric lesions of large joints, the severity of which is not associated with systemic manifestations of the disease.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis leads to severe consequences. As medical practice shows, the percentage of disabled people with this diagnosis is very high and is about 70%.In this regard, juvenile arthritis among rheumatic diseases is in the first place today.
To the reasons contributing to the development of the disease, include a combination of various external factors, including trauma, hypothermia, infection( viral or bacterial), insolation, the introduction of protein preparations and so on. The inadequate response of the child's body is based on increased sensitivity to them. As a result, a rather complex immune response arises, which leads to the progression of the disease. In addition, the hereditary predisposition of the child to diseases of rheumatic character also has definite value.
Pathological process originates in the synovial membrane. Then there is a lesion and a violation in the microcirculation of cells lining the membrane.
During the inflammatory process, a pannus forms. It is formed from a large number of cells in the joint tissues. Pannus closes the cartilage and interferes with the normal metabolic process, thereby increasing destruction in the osteochondral cartilage.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis affects the peripheral joints. In some cases, the disease occurs as a complication of angina or influenza. An illness may be preceded by an exacerbation of a chronic infection.
The disease is acute and subacute.
In the first case, as a rule, there is a rise in temperature, soreness. In the development process, edema of one or several joints, usually symmetrical, is observed. The acute course is characterized by a severe form of the disease. As a rule, it is observed in preschool children, children of primary school age. However, in a number of cases, the development of the disease was noted in adolescents.
Despite the fact that the disease is typical for large( ankle, knee, wrist) joints, the destruction of small joints from the very onset of the pathology is not excluded.
Often there are violations in the cervical region. On the skin there is a polymorphic rash, which is allergic. In addition, there is an increase in the liver, lymph nodes and spleen. When performing a general blood test, anemia is detected.
Subacute nature of the disease is characterized by a less pronounced symptom. In this case, as a rule, first one joint is affected, knee or ankle. Puffiness provokes a disruption of functions, in some cases not accompanied by soreness. The gait of a child can change, and children under two years old can completely stop walking.
The onset of a subacute course of the disease causes a lesion of one, then several( up to four) joints. In this case, the disease goes into the form of oligoarticular arthritis.
Tenderness of the affected joints and exudative changes are manifested to a moderate extent, the body temperature does not increase. Subacute form proceeds more easily, less often there are exacerbations.